Criminal Law Web


Model Penal Code Annotated[1]


PART I.  GENERAL PROVISIONS


ARTICLE 1.  PRELIMINARY

Section 1.01.  Title and Effective Date.

(1) This Act is called the Penal and Correctional Code and may be cited as P.C.C.  It shall become effective on ___.

(2) Except as provided in Subsections (3) and (4) of this Section, the Code does not apply to offenses committed prior to its effective date and prosecutions for such offenses shall be governed by the prior law, which is continued in effect for that purpose, as if this Code were not in force.  For the purposes of this Section, an offense was committed prior to the effective date of the Code if any of the elements of the offense occurred prior thereto.

(3) In any case pending on or after the effective date of the Code, involving an offense committed prior to such date:

  (a) procedural provisions of the Code shall govern, insofar as they are justly applicable and their application does not introduce confusion or delay;

  (b) provisions of the Code according a defense or mitigation shall apply, with the consent of the defendant;

  (c) the Court, with the consent of the defendant, may impose sentence under the provisions of the Code applicable to the offense and the offender.

(4) Provisions of the Code governing the treatment and the release or discharge of prisoners, probationers and parolees shall apply to persons under sentence for offenses committed prior to the effective date of the Code, except that the minimum or maximum period of their detention or supervision shall in no case be increased.
 
 

Section 1.02. Purposes;  Principles of Construction.

(1) The general purposes of the provisions governing the definition of offenses are:

  (a) to forbid and prevent conduct that unjustifiably and inexcusably inflicts or threatens substantial harm to individual or public interests; [cf. Restatement Torts 2d §§ 281, 1, 7]

  (b) to subject to public control persons whose conduct indicates that they are disposed to commit crimes;

  (c) to safeguard conduct that is without fault from condemnation as criminal;

  (d) to give fair warning of the nature of the conduct declared to constitute an offense;

  (e) to differentiate on reasonable grounds between serious and minor offenses.

(2) The general purposes of the provisions governing the sentencing and treatment of offenders are:

  (a) to prevent the commission of offenses;

  (b) to promote the correction and rehabilitation of offenders;

  (c) to safeguard offenders against excessive, disproportionate or arbitrary punishment;

  (d) to give fair warning of the nature of the sentences that may be imposed on conviction of an offense;

  (e) to differentiate among offenders with a view to a just individualization in their treatment;

  (f) to define, coordinate and harmonize the powers, duties and functions of the courts and of administrative officers and agencies responsible for dealing with offenders;

  (g) to advance the use of generally accepted scientific methods and knowledge in the sentencing and treatment of offenders;

  (h) to integrate responsibility for the administration of the correctional system in a State Department of Correction [or other single department or agency].

(3) The provisions of the Code shall be construed according to the fair import of their terms but when the language is susceptible of differing constructions it shall be interpreted to further the general purposes stated in this Section and the special purposes of the particular provision involved.  The discretionary powers conferred by the Code shall be exercised in accordance with the criteria stated in the Code and, insofar as such criteria are not decisive, to further the general purposes stated in this Section.
 
 

Section 1.03. Territorial Applicability.

(1) Except as otherwise provided in this Section, a person may be convicted under the law of this State of an offense committed by his own conduct or the conduct of another for which he is legally accountable if:

  (a) either the conduct which is an element of the offense or the result which is such an element occurs within this State;  or

  (b) conduct occurring outside the State is sufficient under the law of this State to constitute an attempt to commit an offense within the State;  or

  (c) conduct occurring outside the State is sufficient under the law of this State to constitute a conspiracy to commit an offense within the State and an overt act in furtherance of such conspiracy occurs within the State;  or

  (d) conduct occurring within the State establishes complicity in the commission of, or an attempt, solicitation or conspiracy to commit, an offense in another jurisdiction which also is an offense under the law of this State;  or

  (e) the offense consists of the omission to perform a legal duty imposed by the law of the State with respect to domicile, residence or a relationship to a person, thing or transaction in the State;  or

  (f) the offense is based on a statute of this State which expressly prohibits conduct outside the State, when the conduct bears a reasonable relation to a legitimate interest of this State and the actor knows or should know that his conduct is likely to affect that interest.

(2) Subsection (1)(a) does not apply when either causing a specified result or a purpose to cause or danger of causing such a result is an element of an offense and the result occurs or is designed or likely to occur only in another jurisdiction where the conduct charged would not constitute an offense, unless a legislative purpose plainly appears to declare the conduct criminal regardless of the place of the result.

(3) Subsection (1)(a) does not apply when causing a particular result is an element of an offense and the result is caused by conduct occurring outside the State which would not constitute an offense if the result had occurred there, unless the actor purposely or knowingly caused the result within the State.

(4) When the offense is homicide, either the death of the victim or the bodily impact causing death constitutes a "result," within the meaning of Subsection (1)(a) and if the body of a homicide victim is found within the State, it is presumed that such result occurred within the State.

(5) This State includes the land and water and the air space above such land and water with respect to which the State has legislative jurisdiction.
 
 

Section 1.04. Classes of Crimes;  Violations.

(1) An offense defined by this Code or by any other statute of this State, for which a sentence of [death or of] imprisonment is authorized, constitutes a crime.  Crimes are classified as felonies, misdemeanors or petty misdemeanors.

(2) A crime is a felony if it is so designated in this Code or if persons convicted thereof may be sentenced [to death or] to imprisonment for a term which, apart from an extended term, is in excess of one year.

(3) A crime is a misdemeanor if it is so designated in this Code or in a statute other than this Code enacted subsequent thereto.

(4) A crime is a petty misdemeanor if it is so designated in this Code or in a statute other than this Code enacted subsequent thereto or if it is defined by a statute other than this Code which now provides that persons convicted thereof may be sentenced to imprisonment for a term of which the maximum is less than one year.

(5) An offense defined by this Code or by any other statute of this State constitutes a violation if it is so designated in this Code or in the law defining the offense or if no other sentence than a fine, or fine and forfeiture or other civil penalty is authorized upon conviction or if it is defined by a statute other than this Code which now provides that the offense shall not constitute a crime.  A violation does not constitute a crime and conviction of a violation shall not give rise to any disability or legal disadvantage based on conviction of a criminal offense.

(6) Any offense declared by law to constitute a crime, without specification of the grade thereof or of the sentence authorized upon conviction, is a misdemeanor.

(7) An offense defined by any statute of this State other than this Code shall be classified as provided in this Section and the sentence that may be imposed upon conviction thereof shall hereafter be governed by this Code.
 
 

Section 1.05. All Offenses Defined by Statute;  Application of General Provisions of the Code.

(1) No conduct constitutes an offense unless it is a crime or violation under this Code or another statute of this State.

(2) The provisions of Part I of the Code are applicable to offenses defined by other statutes, unless the Code otherwise provides.

(3) This Section does not affect the power of a court to punish for contempt or to employ any sanction authorized by law for the enforcement of an order or a civil judgment or decree.
 
 

Section 1.06. Time Limitations.

(1) A prosecution for murder may be commenced at any time.

 (2) Except as otherwise provided in this Section, prosecutions for other offenses are subject to the following periods of limitation:

  (a) a prosecution for a felony of the first degree must be commenced within six years after it is committed;

  (b) a prosecution for any other felony must be commenced within three years after it is committed;

  (c) a prosecution for a misdemeanor must be commenced within two years after it is committed;

  (d) a prosecution for a petty misdemeanor or a violation must be commenced within six months after it is committed.

(3) If the period prescribed in Subsection (2) has expired, a prosecution may nevertheless be commenced for:

  (a) any offense a material element of which is either fraud or a breach of fiduciary obligation within one year after discovery of the offense by an aggrieved party or by a person who has legal duty to represent an aggrieved party and who is himself not a party to the offense, but in no case shall this provision extend the period of limitation otherwise applicable by more than three years;  and

  (b) any offense based upon misconduct in office by a public officer or employee at any time when the defendant is in public office or employment or within two years thereafter, but in no case shall this provision extend the period of limitation otherwise applicable by more than three years.

(4) An offense is committed either when every element occurs, or, if a legislative purpose to prohibit a continuing course of conduct plainly appears, at the time when the course of conduct or the defendant's complicity therein is terminated.  Time starts to run on the day after the offense is committed.

(5) A prosecution is commenced either when an indictment is found [or an information filed] or when a warrant or other process is issued, provided that such warrant or process is executed without unreasonable delay.

(6) The period of limitation does not run:

  (a) during any time when the accused is continuously absent from the State or has no reasonably ascertainable place of abode or work within the State, but in no case shall this provision extend the period of limitation otherwise applicable by more than three years;  or

  (b) during any time when a prosecution against the accused for the same conduct is pending in this State.
 
 

Section 1.07. Method of Prosecution When Conduct Constitutes More Than One Offense.

(1) Prosecution for Multiple Offenses;  Limitation on Convictions.  When the same conduct of a defendant may establish the commission of more than one offense, the defendant may be prosecuted for each such offense.  He may not, however, be convicted of more than one offense if:

  (a) one offense is included in the other, as defined in Subsection (4) of this Section;  or

  (b) one offense consists only of a conspiracy or other form of preparation to commit the other;  or

  (c) inconsistent findings of fact are required to establish the commission of the offenses;  or

  (d) the offenses differ only in that one is defined to prohibit a designated kind of conduct generally and the other to prohibit a specific instance of such conduct;  or

  (e) the offense is defined as a continuing course of conduct and the defendant's course of conduct was uninterrupted, unless the law provides that specific periods of such conduct constitute separate offenses.

(2) Limitation on Separate Trials for Multiple Offenses.  Except as provided in Subsection (3) of this Section, a defendant shall not be subject to separate trials for multiple offenses based on the same conduct or arising from the same criminal episode, if such offenses are known to the appropriate prosecuting officer at the time of the commencement of the first trial and are within the jurisdiction of a single court.

(3) Authority of Court to Order Separate Trials.  When a defendant is charged with two or more offenses based on the same conduct or arising from the same criminal episode, the Court, on application of the prosecuting attorney or of the defendant, may order any such charge to be tried separately, if it is satisfied that justice so requires.

(4) Conviction of Included Offense Permitted.  A defendant may be convicted of an offense included in an offense charged in the indictment [or the information].  An offense is so included when:

  (a) it is established by proof of the same or less than all the facts required to establish the commission of the offense charged;  or

  (b) it consists of an attempt or solicitation to commit the offense charged or to commit an offense otherwise included therein;  or

  (c) it differs from the offense charged only in the respect that a less serious injury or risk of injury to the same person, property or public interest or a lesser kind of culpability suffices to establish its commission.

(5) Submission of Included Offense to Jury.  The Court shall not be obligated to charge the jury with respect to an included offense unless there is a rational basis for a verdict acquitting the defendant of the offense charged and convicting him of the included offense.
 
 

Section 1.08. When Prosecution Barred by Former Prosecution for the Same Offense.

 When a prosecution is for a violation of the same provision of the statutes and is based upon the same facts as a former prosecution, it is barred by such former prosecution under the following circumstances:

(1) The former prosecution resulted in an acquittal.  There is an acquittal if the prosecution resulted in a finding of not guilty by the trier of fact or in a determination that there was insufficient evidence to warrant a conviction. A finding of guilty of a lesser included offense is an acquittal of the greater inclusive offense, although the conviction is subsequently set aside.

(2) The former prosecution was terminated, after the information had been filed or the indictment found, by a final order or judgment for the defendant, which has not been set aside, reversed, or vacated and which necessarily required a determination inconsistent with a fact or a legal proposition that must be established for conviction of the offense.

(3) The former prosecution resulted in a conviction.  There is a conviction if the prosecution resulted in a judgment of conviction which has not been reversed or vacated, a verdict of guilty which has not been set aside and which is capable of supporting a judgment, or a plea of guilty accepted by the Court.  In the latter two cases failure to enter judgment must be for a reason other than a motion of the defendant.

(4) The former prosecution was improperly terminated.  Except as provided in this Subsection, there is an improper termination of a prosecution if the termination is for reasons not amounting to an acquittal, and it takes place after the first witness is sworn but before verdict.  Termination under any of the following circumstances is not improper:

  (a) The defendant consents to the termination or waives, by motion to dismiss or otherwise, his right to object to the termination.

  (b) The trial court finds that the termination is necessary because:

     (1) it is physically impossible to proceed with the trial in conformity with law;  or

     (2) there is a legal defect in the proceedings which would make any judgment entered upon a verdict reversible as a matter of law;  or

     (3) prejudicial conduct, in or outside the courtroom, makes it impossible to proceed with the trial without injustice to either the defendant or the State;  or

     (4) the jury is unable to agree upon a verdict;  or

     (5) false statements of a juror on voir dire prevent a fair trial.
 
 

Section 1.09. When Prosecution Barred by Former Prosecution for Different Offense.

 Although a prosecution is for a violation of a different provision of the statutes than a former prosecution or is based on different facts, it is barred by such former prosecution under the following circumstances:

(1) The former prosecution resulted in an acquittal or in a conviction as defined in Section 1.08 and the subsequent prosecution is for:

  (a) any offense of which the defendant could have been convicted on the first prosecution;  or

  (b) any offense for which the defendant should have been tried on the first prosecution under Section 1.07, unless the Court ordered a separate trial of the charge of such offense;  or

  (c) the same conduct, unless (i) the offense of which the defendant was formerly convicted or acquitted and the offense for which he is subsequently prosecuted each requires proof of a fact not required by the other and the law defining each of such offenses is intended to prevent a substantially different harm or evil, or (ii) the second offense was not consummated when the former trial began.

(2) The former prosecution was terminated, after the information was filed or the indictment found, by an acquittal or by a final order or judgment for the defendant which has not been set aside, reversed or vacated and which acquittal, final order or judgment necessarily required a determination inconsistent with a fact which must be established for conviction of the second offense.

(3) The former prosecution was improperly terminated, as improper termination is defined in Section 1.08, and the subsequent prosecution is for an offense of which the defendant could have been convicted had the former prosecution not been improperly terminated.
 
 

Section 1.10. Former Prosecution in Another Jurisdiction:  When a Bar.

 When conduct constitutes an offense within the concurrent jurisdiction of this State and of the United States or another State, a prosecution in any such other jurisdiction is a bar to a subsequent prosecution in this State under the following circumstances:

(1) The first prosecution resulted in an acquittal or in a conviction as defined in Section 1.08 and the subsequent prosecution is based on the same conduct, unless (a) the offense of which the defendant was formerly convicted or acquitted and the offense for which he is subsequently prosecuted each requires proof of a fact not required by the other and the law defining each of such offenses is intended to prevent a substantially different harm or evil or (b) the second offense was not consummated when the former trial began;  or

(2) The former prosecution was terminated, after the information was filed or the indictment found, by an acquittal or by a final order or judgment for the defendant which has not been set aside, reversed or vacated and which acquittal, final order or judgment necessarily required a determination inconsistent with a fact which must be established for conviction of the offense of which the defendant is subsequently prosecuted.
 
 

Section 1.11. Former Prosecution Before Court Lacking Jurisdiction or When Fraudulently Procured by the Defendant.

 A prosecution is not a bar within the meaning of Sections 1.08, 1.09 and 1.10 under any of the following circumstances:

(1) The former prosecution was before a court which lacked jurisdiction over the defendant or the offense;  or

(2) The former prosecution was procured by the defendant without the knowledge of the appropriate prosecuting officer and with the purpose of avoiding the sentence which might otherwise be imposed;  or

(3) The former prosecution resulted in a judgment of conviction which was held invalid in a subsequent proceeding on a writ of habeas corpus, coram nobis or similar process.
 
 

Section 1.12. Proof Beyond a Reasonable Doubt; Affirmative Defenses; Burden of Proving Fact When Not an Element of an Offense;  Presumptions.

(1) No person may be convicted of an offense unless each element of such offense is proved beyond a reasonable doubt.  In the absence of such proof, the innocence of the defendant is assumed.

(2) Subsection (1) of this Section does not:

  (a) require the disproof of an affirmative defense unless and until there is evidence supporting such defense;  or

  (b) apply to any defense which the Code or another statute plainly requires the defendant to prove by a preponderance of evidence.

(3) A ground of defense is affirmative, within the meaning of Subsection (2)(a) of this Section, when:

  (a) it arises under a section of the Code which so provides;  or

  (b) it relates to an offense defined by a statute other than the Code and such statute so provides;  or

  (c) it involves a matter of excuse or justification peculiarly within the knowledge of the defendant on which he can fairly be required to adduce supporting evidence.

(4) When the application of the Code depends upon the finding of a fact which is not an element of an offense, unless the Code otherwise provides:

  (a) the burden of proving the fact is on the prosecution or defendant, depending on whose interest or contention will be furthered if the finding should be made;  and

  (b) the fact must be proved to the satisfaction of the Court or jury, as the case may be.

(5) When the Code establishes a presumption with respect to any fact which is an element of an offense, it has the following consequences:

  (a) when there is evidence of the facts which give rise to the presumption, the issue of the existence of the presumed fact must be submitted to the jury, unless the Court is satisfied that the evidence as a whole clearly negatives the presumed fact;  and

  (b) when the issue of the existence of the presumed fact is submitted to the jury, the Court shall charge that while the presumed fact must, on all the evidence, be proved beyond a reasonable doubt, the law declares that the jury may regard the facts giving rise to the presumption as sufficient evidence of the presumed fact.

(6) A presumption not established by the Code or inconsistent with it has the consequences otherwise accorded it by law.
 
 
Section 1.13. General Definitions.

 In this Code, unless a different meaning plainly is required:

(1) "statute" includes the Constitution and a local law or ordinance of a political subdivision of the State;

(2) "act" or "action" means a bodily movement whether voluntary or involuntary;

(3) "voluntary" has the meaning specified in Section 2.01;

(4) "omission" means a failure to act;

(5) "conduct" means an action or omission and its accompanying state of mind, or, where relevant, a series of acts and omissions;

(6) "actor" includes, where relevant, a person guilty of an omission;

(7) "acted" includes, where relevant, "omitted to act";

(8) "person," "he" and "actor" include any natural person and, where relevant, a corporation or an unincorporated association;

(9) "element of an offense" means (i) such conduct or (ii) such attendant circumstances or (iii) such a result of conduct as

  (a) is included in the description of the forbidden conduct in the definition of the offense;  or

  (b) establishes the required kind of culpability;  or

  (c) negatives an excuse or justification for such conduct;  or

  (d) negatives a defense under the statute of limitations;  or

  (e) establishes jurisdiction or venue;

(10) "material element of an offense" means an element that does not relate exclusively to the statute of limitations, jurisdiction, venue or to any other matter similarly unconnected with (i) the harm or evil, incident to conduct, sought to be prevented by the law defining the offense, or (ii) the existence of a justification or excuse for such conduct;

(11) "purposely" has the meaning specified in Section 2.02 and equivalent terms such as "with purpose," "designed" or "with design" have the same meaning;

(12) "intentionally" or "with intent" means purposely;

(13) "knowingly" has the meaning specified in Section 2.02 and equivalent terms such as "knowing" or "with knowledge" have the same meaning;

(14) "recklessly" has the meaning specified in Section 2.02 and equivalent terms such as "recklessness" or "with recklessness" have the same meaning;

(15) "negligently" has the meaning specified in Section 2.02 and equivalent terms such as "negligence" or "with negligence" have the same meaning;

(16) "reasonably believes" or "reasonable belief" designates a belief which the actor is not reckless or negligent in holding.  [cf. Restatement Torts 2d §§ 11, 283]
 


ARTICLE 2.  GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF LIABILITY

Section 2.01. Requirement of Voluntary Act;  Omission as Basis of Liability;  Possession as an Act. [cf. Restatement Torts 2d §§ 2, 3]

(1) A person is not guilty of an offense unless his liability is based on conduct which includes a voluntary act or the omission to perform an act of which he is physically capable.

(2) The following are not voluntary acts within the meaning of this Section:  [cf. Restatement Torts 2d § 2]

  (a) a reflex or convulsion;

  (b) a bodily movement during unconsciousness or sleep;

  (c) conduct during hypnosis or resulting from hypnotic suggestion;

  (d) a bodily movement that otherwise is not a product of the effort or determination of the actor, either conscious or habitual.

(3) Liability for the commission of an offense may not be based on an omission unaccompanied by action unless:

  (a) the omission is expressly made sufficient by the law defining the offense;  or

  (b) a duty to perform the omitted act is otherwise imposed by law.  [cf. Restatement Torts 2d §§ 4, 284]

(4) Possession is an act, within the meaning of this Section, if the possessor knowingly procured or received the thing possessed or was aware of his control thereof for a sufficient period to have been able to terminate his possession.
 
 

Section 2.02. General Requirements of Culpability.

(1) Minimum Requirements of Culpability.  Except as provided in Section 2.05, a person is not guilty of an offense unless he acted purposely, knowingly, recklessly or negligently, as the law may require, with respect to each material element of the offense.

(2) Kinds of Culpability Defined.

 (a) Purposely.  [cf. Restatement Torts 2d § 8a]

 A person acts purposely with respect to a material element of an offense when:

  (i) if the element involves the nature of his conduct or a result thereof, it is his conscious object to engage in conduct of that nature or to cause such a result;  and

  (ii) if the element involves the attendant circumstances, he is aware of the existence of such circumstances or he believes or hopes that they exist.

 (b) Knowingly.  [cf. Restatement Torts 2d § 8a]

 A person acts knowingly with respect to a material element of an offense when:

  (i) if the element involves the nature of his conduct or the attendant circumstances, he is aware that his conduct is of that nature or that such circumstances exist;  and

  (ii) if the element involves a result of his conduct, he is aware that it is practically certain that his conduct will cause such a result.

 (c) Recklessly.  [cf. Restatement Torts 2d § 500]

 A person acts recklessly with respect to a material element of an offense when he consciously disregards a substantial and unjustifiable risk that the material element exists or will result from his conduct.  The risk must be of such a nature and degree that, considering the nature and purpose of the actor's conduct and the circumstances known to him, its disregard involves a gross deviation from the standard of conduct that a law-abiding person would observe in the actor's situation.

 (d) Negligently. [cf. Restatement Torts 2d §§ 282, 11, 283]

 A person acts negligently with respect to a material element of an offense when he should be aware of a substantial and unjustifiable risk that the material element exists or will result from his conduct.  The risk must be of such a nature and degree that the actor's failure to perceive it, considering the nature and purpose of his conduct and the circumstances known to him, involves a gross deviation from the standard of care that a reasonable person would observe in the actor's situation.

(3) Culpability Required Unless Otherwise Provided.  When the culpability sufficient to establish a material element of an offense is not prescribed by law, such element is established if a person acts purposely, knowingly or recklessly with respect thereto.

(4) Prescribed Culpability Requirement Applies to All Material Elements.  When the law defining an offense prescribes the kind of culpability that is sufficient for the commission of an offense, without distinguishing among the material elements thereof, such provision shall apply to all the material elements of the offense, unless a contrary purpose plainly appears.

(5) Substitutes for Negligence, Recklessness and Knowledge.  When the law provides that negligence suffices to establish an element of an offense, such element also is established if a person acts purposely, knowingly or recklessly.  When recklessness suffices to establish an element, such element also is established if a person acts purposely or knowingly.  When acting knowingly suffices to establish an element, such element also is established if a person acts purposely.

(6) Requirement of Purpose Satisfied if Purpose Is Conditional.  When a particular purpose is an element of an offense, the element is established although such purpose is conditional, unless the condition negatives the harm or evil sought to be prevented by the law defining the offense.

(7) Requirement of Knowledge Satisfied by Knowledge of High Probability.  When knowledge of the existence of a particular fact is an element of an offense, such knowledge is established if a person is aware of a high probability of its existence, unless he actually believes that it does not exist.

(8) Requirement of Wilfulness Satisfied by Acting Knowingly.  A requirement that an offense be committed wilfully is satisfied if a person acts knowingly with respect to the material elements of the offense, unless a purpose to impose further requirements appears.

 (9) Culpability as to Illegality of Conduct.  Neither knowledge nor recklessness or negligence as to whether conduct constitutes an offense or as to the existence, meaning or application of the law determining the elements of an offense is an element of such offense, unless the definition of the offense or the Code so provides.

(10) Culpability as Determinant of Grade of Offense.  When the grade or degree of an offense depends on whether the offense is committed purposely, knowingly, recklessly or negligently, its grade or degree shall be the lowest for which the determinative kind of culpability is established with respect to any material element of the offense.
 
 

Section 2.03. Causal Relationship Between Conduct and Result;  Divergence Between Result Designed or Contemplated and Actual Result or Between Probable and Actual Result.  [cf. Restatement Torts 2d § 9]

(1) Conduct is the cause of a result when:

  (a) it is an antecedent but for which the result in question would not have occurred;  and

  (b) the relationship between the conduct and result satisfies any additional causal requirements imposed by the Code or by the law defining the offense.

(2) When purposely or knowingly causing a particular result is an element of an offense, the element is not established if the actual result is not within the purpose or the contemplation of the actor unless:

  (a) the actual result differs from that designed or contemplated, as the case may be, only in the respect that a different person or different property is injured or affected or that the injury or harm designed or contemplated would have been more serious or more extensive than that caused;  or

  (b) the actual result involves the same kind of injury or harm as that designed or contemplated and is not too remote or accidental in its occurrence to have a [just] bearing on the actor's liability or on the gravity of his offense.

(3) When recklessly or negligently causing a particular result is an element of an offense, the element is not established if the actual result is not within the risk of which the actor is aware or, in the case of negligence, of which he should be aware unless:

  (a) the actual result differs from the probable result only in the respect that a different person or different property is injured or affected or that the probable injury or harm would have been more serious or more extensive than that caused;  or

  (b) the actual result involves the same kind of injury or harm as the probable result and is not too remote or accidental in its occurrence to have a [just] bearing on the actor's liability or on the gravity of his offense.

(4) When causing a particular result is a material element of an offense for which absolute liability is imposed by law, the element is not established unless the actual result is a probable consequence of the actor's conduct.
 
 

Section 2.04. Ignorance or Mistake. [cf. Restatement Torts 2d §§ 55, 56, 57, 78]

(1) Ignorance or mistake as to a matter of fact or law is a defense if:

  (a) the ignorance or mistake negatives the purpose, knowledge, belief, recklessness or negligence required to establish a material element of the offense;  or

  (b) the law provides that the state of mind established by such ignorance or mistake constitutes a defense.

(2) Although ignorance or mistake would otherwise afford a defense to the offense charged, the defense is not available if the defendant would be guilty of another offense had the situation been as he supposed.  In such case, however, the ignorance or mistake of the defendant shall reduce the grade and degree of the offense of which he may be convicted to those of the offense of which he would be guilty had the situation been as he supposed.

(3) A belief that conduct does not legally constitute an offense is a defense to a prosecution for that offense based upon such conduct when:  [cf. Restatement Torts 2d §§ 288A, 296]

  (a) the statute or other enactment defining the offense is not known to the actor and has not been published or otherwise reasonably made available prior to the conduct alleged;  or

  (b) he acts in reasonable reliance upon an official statement of the law, afterward determined to be invalid or erroneous, contained in (i) a statute or other enactment;  (ii) a judicial decision, opinion or judgment;  (iii) an administrative order or grant of permission;  or (iv) an official interpretation of the public officer or body charged by law with responsibility for the interpretation, administration or enforcement of the law defining the offense.

(4) The defendant must prove a defense arising under Subsection (3) of this Section by a preponderance of evidence.
 
 

Section 2.05. When Culpability Requirements Are Inapplicable to Violations and to Offenses Defined by Other Statutes;  Effect of Absolute Liability in Reducing Grade of Offense to Violation.  [cf. Restatement Torts 2d § 519]

(1) The requirements of culpability prescribed by Sections 2.01 and 2.02 do not apply to:

  (a) offenses which constitute violations, unless the requirement involved is included in the definition of the offense or the Court determines that its application is consistent with effective enforcement of the law defining the offense;  or

  (b) offenses defined by statutes other than the Code, insofar as a legislative purpose to impose absolute liability for such offenses or with respect to any material element thereof plainly appears.

(2) Notwithstanding any other provision of existing law and unless a subsequent statute otherwise provides:

    (a) when absolute liability is imposed with respect to any material element of an offense defined by a statute other than the Code and a conviction is based upon such liability, the offense constitutes a violation;  and

    (b) although absolute liability is imposed by law with respect to one or more of the material elements of an offense defined by a statute other than the Code, the culpable commission of the offense may be charged and proved, in which event negligence with respect to such elements constitutes sufficient culpability and the classification of the offense and the sentence that may be imposed therefor upon conviction are determined by Section 1.04 and Article 6 of the Code.
 
 

Section 2.06. Liability for Conduct of Another;  Complicity.

(1) A person is guilty of an offense if it is committed by his own conduct or by the conduct of another person for which he is legally accountable, or both.

  (2) A person is legally accountable for the conduct of another person when:

    (a) acting with the kind of culpability that is sufficient for the commission of the offense, he causes an innocent or irresponsible person to engage in such conduct;  or

    (b) he is made accountable for the conduct of such other person by the Code or by the law defining the offense;  or

    (c) he is an accomplice of such other person in the commission of the offense.

  (3) A person is an accomplice of another person in the commission of an offense if:

    (a) with the purpose of promoting or facilitating the commission of the offense, he

      (i) solicits such other person to commit it;  or

      (ii) aids or agrees or attempts to aid such other person in planning or committing it;  or

      (iii) having a legal duty to prevent the commission of the offense, fails to make proper effort so to do;  or

    (b) his conduct is expressly declared by law to establish his complicity.

(4) When causing a particular result is an element of an offense, an accomplice in the conduct causing such result is an accomplice in the commission of that offense, if he acts with the kind of culpability, if any, with respect to that result that is sufficient for the commission of the offense.

(5) A person who is legally incapable of committing a particular offense himself may be guilty thereof if it is committed by the conduct of another person for which he is legally accountable, unless such liability is inconsistent with the purpose of the provision establishing his incapacity.

(6) Unless otherwise provided by the Code or by the law defining the offense, a person is not an accomplice in an offense committed by another person if:

    (a) he is a victim of that offense;  or

    (b) the offense is so defined that his conduct is inevitably incident to its commission;  or

    (c) he terminates his complicity prior to the commission of the offense and

      (i) wholly deprives it of effectiveness in the commission of the offense;  or

      (ii) gives timely warning to the law enforcement authorities or otherwise makes proper effort to prevent the commission of the offense.

(7) An accomplice may be convicted on proof of the commission of the offense and of his complicity therein, though the person claimed to have committed the offense has not been prosecuted or convicted or has been convicted of a different offense or degree of offense or has an immunity to prosecution or conviction or has been acquitted.
 
 

Section 2.07. Liability of Corporations, Unincorporated Associations and Persons Acting, or Under a Duty to Act, in Their Behalf.

(1) A corporation may be convicted of the commission of an offense if:

    (a) the offense is a violation or the offense is defined by a statute other than the Code in which a legislative purpose to impose liability on corporations plainly appears and the conduct is performed by an agent of the corporation acting in behalf of the corporation within the scope of his office or employment, except that if the law defining the offense designates the agents for whose conduct the corporation is accountable or the circumstances under which it is accountable, such provisions shall apply;  or

    (b) the offense consists of an omission to discharge a specific duty of affirmative performance imposed on corporations by law;  or

    (c) the commission of the offense was authorized, requested, commanded, performed or recklessly tolerated by the board of directors or by a high managerial agent acting in behalf of the corporation within the scope of his office or employment.

(2) When absolute liability is imposed for the commission of an offense, a legislative purpose to impose liability on a corporation shall be assumed, unless the contrary plainly appears.

(3) An unincorporated association may be convicted of the commission of an offense if:

    (a) the offense is defined by a statute other than the Code which expressly provides for the liability of such an association and the conduct is performed by an agent of the association acting in behalf of the association within the scope of his office or employment, except that if the law defining the offense designates the agents for whose conduct the association is accountable or the circumstances under which it is accountable, such provisions shall apply;  or

    (b) the offense consists of an omission to discharge a specific duty of affirmative performance imposed on associations by law.

(4) As used in this Section:

    (a) "corporation" does not include an entity organized as or by a governmental agency for the execution of a governmental program;

    (b) "agent" means any director, officer, servant, employee or other person authorized to act in behalf of the corporation or association and, in the case of an unincorporated association, a member of such association;

    (c) "high managerial agent" means an officer of a corporation or an unincorporated association, or, in the case of a partnership, a partner, or any other agent of a corporation or association having duties of such responsibility that his conduct may fairly be assumed to represent the policy of the corporation or association.

(5) In any prosecution of a corporation or an unincorporated association for the commission of an offense included within the terms of Subsection (1)(a) or Subsection (3)(a) of this Section, other than an offense for which absolute liability has been imposed, it shall be a defense if the defendant proves by a preponderance of evidence that the high managerial agent having supervisory responsibility over the subject matter of the offense employed due diligence to prevent its commission.  This paragraph shall not apply if it is plainly inconsistent with the legislative purpose in defining the particular offense.

(6)(a) A person is legally accountable for any conduct he performs or causes to be performed in the name of the corporation or an unincorporated association or in its behalf to the same extent as if it were performed in his own name or behalf.

    (b) Whenever a duty to act is imposed by law upon a corporation or an unincorporated association, any agent of the corporation or association having primary responsibility for the discharge of the duty is legally accountable for a reckless omission to perform the required act to the same extent as if the duty were imposed by law directly upon himself.

   (c) When a person is convicted of an offense by reason of his legal accountability for the conduct of a corporation or an unincorporated association, he is subject to the sentence authorized by law when a natural person is convicted of an offense of the grade and the degree involved.
 
 

Section 2.08. Intoxication. [cf. Restatement Torts 2d §§ 288A, 296]

(1) Except as provided in Subsection (4) of this Section, intoxication of the actor is not a defense unless it negatives an element of the offense.

(2) When recklessness establishes an element of the offense, if the actor, due to self-induced intoxication, is unaware of a risk of which he would have been aware had he been sober, such unawareness is immaterial.

(3) Intoxication does not, in itself, constitute mental disease within the meaning of Section 4.01.

(4) Intoxication which (a) is not self-induced or (b) is pathological is an affirmative defense if by reason of such intoxication the actor at the time of his conduct lacks substantial capacity either to appreciate its criminality [wrongfulness] or to conform his conduct to the requirements of law.

(5) Definitions.  In this Section unless a different meaning plainly is required:

    (a) "intoxication" means a disturbance of mental or physical capacities resulting from the introduction of substances into the body;

    (b) "self-induced intoxication" means intoxication caused by substances which the actor knowingly introduces into his body, the tendency of which to cause intoxication he knows or ought to know, unless he introduces them pursuant to medical advice or under such circumstances as would afford a defense to a charge of crime;

    (c) "pathological intoxication" means intoxication grossly excessive in degree, given the amount of the intoxicant, to which the actor does not know he is susceptible.
 
 

Section 2.09. Duress.  [cf. Restatement Torts 2d §§ 288A, 296]

(1) It is an affirmative defense that the actor engaged in the conduct charged to constitute an offense because he was coerced to do so by the use of, or a threat to use, unlawful force against his person or the person of another, which a person of reasonable firmness in his situation would have been unable to resist.  [cf. Restatement Torts 2d §§ 11, 283]

(2) The defense provided by this Section is unavailable if the actor recklessly placed himself in a situation in which it was probable that he would be subjected to duress.  The defense is also unavailable if he was negligent in placing himself in such a situation, whenever negligence suffices to establish culpability for the offense charged.

(3) It is not a defense that a woman acted on the command of her husband, unless she acted under such coercion as would establish a defense under this Section.  [The presumption that a woman, acting in the presence of her husband, is coerced is abolished.]

(4) When the conduct of the actor would otherwise be justifiable under Section 3.02, this Section does not preclude such defense.
 
 

Section 2.10. Military Orders.  [cf. Restatement Torts 2d §§ 288A, 296]

  It is an affirmative defense that the actor, in engaging in the conduct charged to constitute an offense, does no more than execute an order of his superior in the armed services which he does not know to be unlawful.
 
 

Section 2.11. Consent.  [cf. Restatement Torts 2d § 10A]

(1) In General.  The consent of the victim to conduct charged to constitute an offense or to the result thereof is a defense if such consent negatives an element of the offense or precludes the infliction of the harm or evil sought to be prevented by the law defining the offense.

(2) Consent to Bodily Harm.  When conduct is charged to constitute an offense because it causes or threatens bodily harm, consent to such conduct or to the infliction of such harm is a defense if:

   (a) the bodily harm consented to or threatened by the conduct consented to is not serious;  or

   (b) the conduct and the harm are reasonably foreseeable hazards of joint participation in a lawful athletic contest or competitive sport;  or

   (c) the consent establishes a justification for the conduct under Article 3 of the Code.

(3) Ineffective Consent.  Unless otherwise provided by the Code or by the law defining the offense, assent does not constitute consent if:

    (a) it is given by a person who is legally incompetent to authorize the conduct charged to constitute the offense;  or

    (b) it is given by a person who by reason of youth, mental disease or defect or intoxication is manifestly unable or known by the actor to be unable to make a reasonable judgment as to the nature or harmfulness of the conduct charged to constitute the offense;  or

    (c) it is given by a person whose improvident consent is sought to be prevented by the law defining the offense;  or

    (d) it is induced by force, duress or deception of a kind sought to be prevented by the law defining the offense.
 
 

Section 2.12. De Minimis Infractions.

  The Court shall dismiss a prosecution if, having regard to the nature of the conduct charged to constitute an offense and the nature of the attendant circumstances, it finds that the defendant's conduct:

(1) was within a customary license or tolerance, neither expressly negatived by the person whose interest was infringed nor inconsistent with the purpose of the law defining the offense;  or

(2) did not actually cause or threaten the harm or evil sought to be prevented by the law defining the offense or did so only to an extent too trivial to warrant the condemnation of conviction;  or

(3) presents such other extenuations that it cannot reasonably be regarded as envisaged by the legislature in forbidding the offense.

  The Court shall not dismiss a prosecution under Subsection (3) of this Section without filing a written statement of its reasons.
 
 

Section 2.13. Entrapment.

(1) A public law enforcement official or a person acting in cooperation with such an official perpetrates an entrapment if for the purpose of obtaining evidence of the commission of an offense, he induces or encourages another person to engage in conduct constituting such offense by either:

    (a) making knowingly false representations designed to induce the belief that such conduct is not prohibited;  or

    (b) employing methods of persuasion or inducement which create a substantial risk that such an offense will be committed by persons other than those who are ready to commit it.

(2) Except as provided in Subsection (3) of this Section, a person prosecuted for an offense shall be acquitted if he proves by a preponderance of evidence that his conduct occurred in response to an entrapment.  The issue of entrapment shall be tried by the Court in the absence of the jury.

(3) The defense afforded by this Section is unavailable when causing or threatening bodily injury is an element of the offense charged and the prosecution is based on conduct causing or threatening such injury to a person other than the person perpetrating the entrapment.
 


ARTICLE 3.  GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF JUSTIFICATION [cf. Restatement Torts 2d §§ 288A, 296]

Section 3.01. Justification an Affirmative Defense;  Civil Remedies Unaffected.

(1) In any prosecution based on conduct which is justifiable under this Article, justification is an affirmative defense.

(2) The fact that conduct is justifiable under this Article does not abolish or impair any remedy for such conduct which is available in any civil action.
 
 

Section 3.02. Justification Generally:  Choice of Evils.  [cf. Restatement Torts 2d §§ 262, 263]

(1) Conduct which the actor believes to be necessary to avoid a harm or evil to himself or to another is justifiable, provided that:

    (a) the harm or evil sought to be avoided by such conduct is greater than that sought to be prevented by the law defining the offense charged;  and

    (b) neither the Code nor other law defining the offense provides exceptions or defenses dealing with the specific situation involved;  and

    (c) a legislative purpose to exclude the justification claimed does not otherwise plainly appear.

(2) When the actor was reckless or negligent in bringing about the situation requiring a choice of harms or evils or in appraising the necessity for his conduct, the justification afforded by this Section is unavailable in a prosecution for any offense for which recklessness or negligence, as the case may be, suffices to establish culpability.
 
 

Section 3.03. Execution of Public Duty.

(1) Except as provided in Subsection (2) of this Section, conduct is justifiable when it is required or authorized by:

    (a) the law defining the duties or functions of a public officer or the assistance to be rendered to such officer in the performance of his duties; or

    (b) the law governing the execution of legal process;  or

    (c) the judgment or order of a competent court or tribunal;  or

    (d) the law governing the armed services or the lawful conduct of war;  or

    (e) any other provision of law imposing a public duty.

(2) The other sections of this Article apply to:

    (a) the use of force upon or toward the person of another for any of the purposes dealt with in such sections;  and

    (b) the use of deadly force for any purpose, unless the use of such force is otherwise expressly authorized by law or occurs in the lawful conduct of war.

(3) The justification afforded by Subsection (1) of this Section applies:

    (a) when the actor believes his conduct to be required or authorized by the judgment or direction of a competent court or tribunal or in the lawful execution of legal process, notwithstanding lack of jurisdiction of the court or defect in the legal process;  and

    (b) when the actor believes his conduct to be required or authorized to assist a public officer in the performance of his duties, notwithstanding that the officer exceeded his legal authority.
 
 

Section 3.04. Use of Force in Self-Protection.  [cf. Restatement Torts 2d §§ 63, 261]

(1) Use of Force Justifiable for Protection of the Person.  Subject to the provisions of this Section and of Section 3.09, the use of force upon or toward another person is justifiable when the actor believes that such force is immediately necessary for the purpose of protecting himself against the use of unlawful force by such other person on the present occasion.

(2) Limitations on Justifying Necessity for Use of Force.

    (a) The use of force is not justifiable under this Section:

      (i) to resist an arrest which the actor knows is being made by a peace officer, although the arrest is unlawful;  or

      (ii) to resist force used by the occupier or possessor of property or by another person on his behalf, where the actor knows that the person using the force is doing so under a claim of right to protect the property, except that this limitation shall not apply if:

       (1) the actor is a public officer acting in the performance of his duties or a person lawfully assisting him therein or a person making or assisting in a lawful arrest;  or

       (2) the actor has been unlawfully dispossessed of the property and is making a re-entry or recaption justified by Section 3.06;  or

       (3) the actor believes that such force is necessary to protect himself against death or serious bodily harm.

    (b) The use of deadly force is not justifiable under this Section unless the actor believes that such force is necessary to protect himself against death, serious bodily harm, kidnapping or sexual intercourse compelled by force or threat;  nor is it justifiable if:

      (i) the actor, with the purpose of causing death or serious bodily harm, provoked the use of force against himself in the same encounter;  or

      (ii) the actor knows that he can avoid the necessity of using such force with complete safety by retreating or by surrendering possession of a thing to a person asserting a claim of right thereto or by complying with a demand that he abstain from any action which he has no duty to take, except that:

       (1) the actor is not obliged to retreat from his dwelling or place of work, unless he was the initial aggressor or is assailed in his place of work by another person whose place of work the actor knows it to be;  and

       (2) a public officer justified in using force in the performance of his duties or a person justified in using force in his assistance or a person justified in using force in making an arrest or preventing an escape is not obliged to desist from efforts to perform such duty, effect such arrest or prevent such escape because of resistance or threatened resistance by or on behalf of the person against whom such action is directed.

    (c) Except as required by paragraphs (a) and (b) of this Subsection, a person employing protective force may estimate the necessity thereof under the circumstances as he believes them to be when the force is used, without retreating, surrendering possession, doing any other act which he has no legal duty to do or abstaining from any lawful action.

(3) Use of Confinement as Protective Force.  The justification afforded by this Section extends to the use of confinement as protective force only if the actor takes all reasonable measures to terminate the confinement as soon as he knows that he safely can, unless the person confined has been arrested on a charge of crime.
 
 

Section 3.05. Use of Force for the Protection of Other Persons.  [cf. Restatement Torts 2d §§ 63, 261]

(1) Subject to the provisions of this Section and of Section 3.09, the use of force upon or toward the person of another is justifiable to protect a third person when:

    (a) the actor would be justified under Section 3.04 in using such force to protect himself against the injury he believes to be threatened to the person whom he seeks to protect;  and

    (b) under the circumstances as the actor believes them to be, the person whom he seeks to protect would be justified in using such protective force;  and

    (c) the actor believes that his intervention is necessary for the protection of such other person.

(2) Notwithstanding Subsection (1) of this Section:

    (a) when the actor would be obliged under Section 3.04 to retreat, to surrender the possession of a thing or to comply with a demand before using force in self-protection, he is not obliged to do so before using force for the protection of another person, unless he knows that he can thereby secure the complete safety of such other person;  and

    (b) when the person whom the actor seeks to protect would be obliged under Section 3.04 to retreat, to surrender the possession of a thing or to comply with a demand if he knew that he could obtain complete safety by so doing, the actor is obliged to try to cause him to do so before using force in his protection if the actor knows that he can obtain complete safety in that way; and

   (c) neither the actor nor the person whom he seeks to protect is obliged to retreat when in the other's dwelling or place of work to any greater extent than in his own.
 
 

Section 3.06. Use of Force for the Protection of Property.  [cf. Restatement Torts 2d §§ 63, 261]

(1) Use of Force Justifiable for Protection of Property.  Subject to the provisions of this Section and of Section 3.09, the use of force upon or toward the person of another is justifiable when the actor believes that such force is immediately necessary:

    (a) to prevent or terminate an unlawful entry or other trespass upon land or a trespass against or the unlawful carrying away of tangible, movable property, provided that such land or movable property is, or is believed by the actor to be, in his possession or in the possession of another person for whose protection he acts;  or

    (b) to effect an entry or re-entry upon land or to retake tangible movable property, provided that the actor believes that he or the person by whose authority he acts or a person from whom he or such other person derives title was unlawfully dispossessed of such land or movable property and is entitled to possession, and provided, further, that:

      (i) the force is used immediately or on fresh pursuit after such dispossession;  or

      (ii) the actor believes that the person against whom he uses force has no claim of right to the possession of the property and, in the case of land, the circumstances, as the actor believes them to be, are of such urgency that it would be an exceptional hardship to postpone the entry or re-entry until a court order is obtained.

(2) Meaning of Possession.  For the purposes of Subsection (1) of this Section:

    (a) a person who has parted with the custody of property to another who refuses to restore it to him is no longer in possession, unless the property is movable and was and still is located on land in his possession;

    (b) a person who has been dispossessed of land does not regain possession thereof merely by setting foot thereon;

    (c) a person who has a license to use or occupy real property is deemed to be in possession thereof except against the licensor acting under claim of right.

(3) Limitations on Justifiable Use of Force.

    (a) Request to Desist.  The use of force is justifiable under this Section only if the actor first requests the person against whom such force is used to desist from his interference with the property, unless the actor believes that:

      (i) such request would be useless;  or

      (ii) it would be dangerous to himself or another person to make the request;  or

      (iii) substantial harm will be done to the physical condition of the property which is sought to be protected before the request can effectively be made.

    (b) Exclusion of Trespasser.  The use of force to prevent or terminate a trespass is not justifiable under this Section if the actor knows that the exclusion of the trespasser will expose him to substantial danger of serious bodily harm.

    (c) Resistance of Lawful Re-entry or Recaption.  The use of force to prevent an entry or re-entry upon land or the recaption of movable property is not justifiable under this Section, although the actor believes that such re-entry or recaption is unlawful, if:

      (i) the re-entry or recaption is made by or on behalf of a person who was actually dispossessed of the property;  and

      (ii) it is otherwise justifiable under paragraph (1)(b) of this Section.

    (d) Use of Deadly Force.  The use of deadly force is not justifiable under this Section unless the actor believes that:

      (i) the person against whom the force is used is attempting to dispossess him of his dwelling otherwise than under a claim of right to its possession; or

      (ii) the person against whom the force is used is attempting to commit or consummate arson, burglary, robbery or other felonious theft or property destruction and either:

       (1) has employed or threatened deadly force against or in the presence of the actor;  or

       (2) the use of force other than deadly force to prevent the commission or the consummation of the crime would expose the actor or another in his presence to substantial danger of serious bodily harm.

(4) Use of Confinement as Protective Force.  The justification afforded by this Section extends to the use of confinement as protective force only if the actor takes all reasonable measures to terminate the confinement as soon as he knows that he can do so with safety to the property, unless the person confined has been arrested on a charge of crime.

(5) Use of Device to Protect Property.  The justification afforded by this Section extends to the use of a device for the purpose of protecting property only if:

    (a) the device is not designed to cause or known to create a substantial risk of causing death or serious bodily harm;  and

    (b) the use of the particular device to protect the property from entry or trespass is reasonable under the circumstances, as the actor believes them to be;  and

    (c) the device is one customarily used for such a purpose or reasonable care is taken to make known to probable intruders the fact that it is used.

(6) Use of Force to Pass Wrongful Obstructor.  The use of force to pass a person whom the actor believes to be purposely or knowingly and unjustifiably obstructing the actor from going to a place to which he may lawfully go is justifiable, provided that:

    (a) the actor believes that the person against whom he uses force has no claim of right to obstruct the actor;  and

    (b) the actor is not being obstructed from entry or movement on land which he knows to be in the possession or custody of the person obstructing him, or in the possession or custody of another person by whose authority the obstructor acts, unless the circumstances, as the actor believes them to be, are of such urgency that it would not be reasonable to postpone the entry or movement on such land until a court order is obtained;  and

    (c) the force used is not greater than would be justifiable if the person obstructing the actor were using force against him to prevent his passage.
 
 

Section 3.07. Use of Force in Law Enforcement. [cf. Restatement Torts 2d § 118]

(1) Use of Force Justifiable to Effect an Arrest.  Subject to the provisions of this Section and of Section 3.09, the use of force upon or toward the person of another is justifiable when the actor is making or assisting in making an arrest and the actor believes that such force is immediately necessary to effect a lawful arrest.

(2) Limitations on the Use of Force.

    (a) The use of force is not justifiable under this Section unless:

      (i) the actor makes known the purpose of the arrest or believes that it is otherwise known by or cannot reasonably be made known to the person to be arrested;  and

      (ii) when the arrest is made under a warrant, the warrant is valid or believed by the actor to be valid.

    (b) The use of deadly force is not justifiable under this Section unless:

      (i) the arrest is for a felony;  and

      (ii) the person effecting the arrest is authorized to act as a peace officer or is assisting a person whom he believes to be authorized to act as a peace officer;  and

      (iii) the actor believes that the force employed creates no substantial risk of injury to innocent persons;  and

      (iv) the actor believes that:

       (1) the crime for which the arrest is made involved conduct including the use or threatened use of deadly force;  or

       (2) there is a substantial risk that the person to be arrested will cause death or serious bodily harm if his apprehension is delayed.

(3) Use of Force to Prevent Escape from Custody.  The use of force to prevent the escape of an arrested person from custody is justifiable when the force could justifiably have been employed to effect the arrest under which the person is in custody, except that a guard or other person authorized to act as a peace officer is justified in using any force, including deadly force, which he believes to be immediately necessary to prevent the escape of a person from a jail, prison, or other institution for the detention of persons charged with or convicted of a crime.

(4) Use of Force by Private Person Assisting an Unlawful Arrest.

    (a) A private person who is summoned by a peace officer to assist in effecting an unlawful arrest, is justified in using any force which he would be justified in using if the arrest were lawful, provided that he does not believe the arrest is unlawful.

    (b) A private person who assists another private person in effecting an unlawful arrest, or who, not being summoned, assists a peace officer in effecting an unlawful arrest, is justified in using any force which he would be justified in using if the arrest were lawful, provided that (i) he believes the arrest is lawful, and (ii) the arrest would be lawful if the facts were as he believes them to be.

(5) Use of Force to Prevent Suicide or the Commission of a Crime.

    (a) The use of force upon or toward the person of another is justifiable when the actor believes that such force is immediately necessary to prevent such other person from committing suicide, inflicting serious bodily harm upon himself, committing or consummating the commission of a crime involving or threatening bodily harm, damage to or loss of property or a breach of the peace, except that:

      (i) any limitations imposed by the other provisions of this Article on the justifiable use of force in self-protection, for the protection of others, the protection of property, the effectuation of an arrest or the prevention of an escape from custody shall apply notwithstanding the criminality of the conduct against which such force is used;  and

      (ii) the use of deadly force is not in any event justifiable under this Subsection unless:

       (1) the actor believes that there is a substantial risk that the person whom he seeks to prevent from committing a crime will cause death or serious bodily harm to another unless the commission or the consummation of the crime is prevented and that the use of such force presents no substantial risk of injury to innocent persons;  or

       (2) the actor believes that the use of such force is necessary to suppress a riot or mutiny after the rioters or mutineers have been ordered to disperse and warned, in any particular manner that the law may require, that such force will be used if they do not obey.

    (b) The justification afforded by this Subsection extends to the use of confinement as preventive force only if the actor takes all reasonable measures to terminate the confinement as soon as he knows that he safely can, unless the person confined has been arrested on a charge of crime.
 
 

Section 3.08. Use of Force by Persons with Special Responsibility for Care, Discipline or Safety of Others.

  The use of force upon or toward the person of another is justifiable if:

   (1) the actor is the parent or guardian or other person similarly responsible for the general care and supervision of a minor or a person acting at the request of such parent, guardian or other responsible person and:

     (a) the force is used for the purpose of safeguarding or promoting the welfare of the minor, including the prevention or punishment of his misconduct;  and

     (b) the force used is not designed to cause or known to create a substantial risk of causing death, serious bodily harm, disfigurement, extreme pain or mental distress or gross degradation;  or

   (2) the actor is a teacher or a person otherwise entrusted with the care or supervision for a special purpose of a minor and:

     (a) the actor believes that the force used is necessary to further such special purpose, including the maintenance of reasonable discipline in a school, class or other group, and that the use of such force is consistent with the welfare of the minor;  and

     (b) the degree of force, if it had been used by the parent or guardian of the minor, would not be unjustifiable under Subsection (1)(b) of this Section;  or

   (3) the actor is the guardian or other person similarly responsible for the general care and supervision of an incompetent person;  and:

     (a) the force is used for the purpose of safeguarding or promoting the welfare of the incompetent person, including the prevention of his misconduct, or, when such incompetent person is in a hospital or other institution for his care and custody, for the maintenance of reasonable discipline in such institution;  and

     (b) the force used is not designed to cause or known to create a substantial risk of causing death, serious bodily harm, disfigurement, extreme or unnecessary pain, mental distress, or humiliation;  or

   (4) the actor is a doctor or other therapist or a person assisting him at his direction, and:

     (a) the force is used for the purpose of administering a recognized form of treatment which the actor believes to be adapted to promoting the physical or mental health of the patient;  and

     (b) the treatment is administered with the consent of the patient or, if the patient is a minor or an incompetent person, with the consent of his parent or guardian or other person legally competent to consent in his behalf, or the treatment is administered in an emergency when the actor believes that no one competent to consent can be consulted and that a reasonable person, wishing to safeguard the welfare of the patient, would consent;  or

   (5) the actor is a warden or other authorized official of a correctional institution, and:

     (a) he believes that the force used is necessary for the purpose of enforcing the lawful rules or procedures of the institution, unless his belief in the lawfulness of the rule or procedure sought to be enforced is erroneous and his error is due to ignorance or mistake as to the provisions of the Code, any other provision of the criminal law or the law governing the administration of the institution;  and

     (b) the nature or degree of force used is not forbidden by Article 303 or 304 of the Code;  and

     (c) if deadly force is used, its use is otherwise justifiable under this Article;  or

   (6) the actor is a person responsible for the safety of a vessel or an aircraft or a person acting at his direction, and

     (a) he believes that the force used is necessary to prevent interference with the operation of the vessel or aircraft or obstruction of the execution of a lawful order, unless his belief in the lawfulness of the order is erroneous and his error is due to ignorance or mistake as to the law defining his authority;  and

     (b) if deadly force is used, its use is otherwise justifiable under this Article;  or

   (7) the actor is a person who is authorized or required by law to maintain order or decorum in a vehicle, train or other carrier or in a place where others are assembled, and:

     (a) he believes that the force used is necessary for such purpose;  and

     (b) the force used is not designed to cause or known to create a substantial risk of causing death, bodily harm, or extreme mental distress.
 
 

Section 3.09. Mistake of Law as to Unlawfulness of Force or Legality of Arrest;  Reckless or Negligent Use of Otherwise Justifiable Force;  Reckless or Negligent Injury or Risk of Injury to Innocent Persons.

  (1) The justification afforded by Sections 3.04 to 3.07, inclusive, is unavailable when:

    (a) the actor's belief in the unlawfulness of the force or conduct against which he employs protective force or his belief in the lawfulness of an arrest which he endeavors to effect by force is erroneous;  and

    (b) his error is due to ignorance or mistake as to the provisions of the Code, any other provision of the criminal law or the law governing the legality of an arrest or search.

  (2) When the actor believes that the use of force upon or toward the person of another is necessary for any of the purposes for which such belief would establish a justification under Sections 3.03 to 3.08 but the actor is reckless or negligent in having such belief or in acquiring or failing to acquire any knowledge or belief which is material to the justifiability of his use of force, the justification afforded by those Sections is unavailable in a prosecution for an offense for which recklessness or negligence, as the case may be, suffices to establish culpability.

  (3) When the actor is justified under Sections 3.03 to 3.08 in using force upon or toward the person of another but he recklessly or negligently injures or creates a risk of injury to innocent persons, the justification afforded by those Sections is unavailable in a prosecution for such recklessness or negligence towards innocent persons.
 
 

Section 3.10. Justification in Property Crimes.

  Conduct involving the appropriation, seizure or destruction of, damage to, intrusion on or interference with property is justifiable under circumstances which would establish a defense of privilege in a civil action based thereon, unless:

   (1) the Code or the law defining the offense deals with the specific situation involved;  or

   (2) a legislative purpose to exclude the justification claimed otherwise plainly appears.
 
 

Section 3.11. Definitions.

  In this Article, unless a different meaning plainly is required:

   (1) "unlawful force" means force, including confinement, which is employed without the consent of the person against whom it is directed and the employment of which constitutes an offense or actionable tort or would constitute such offense or tort except for a defense (such as the absence of intent, negligence, or mental capacity;  duress;  youth;  or diplomatic status) not amounting to a privilege to use the force.  Assent constitutes consent, within the meaning of this Section, whether or not it otherwise is legally effective, except assent to the infliction of death or serious bodily harm.

   (2) "deadly force" means force which the actor uses with the purpose of causing or which he knows to create a substantial risk of causing death or serious bodily harm. Purposely firing a firearm in the direction of another person or at a vehicle in which another person is believed to be constitutes deadly force.  A threat to cause death or serious bodily harm, by the production of a weapon or otherwise, so long as the actor's purpose is limited to creating an apprehension that he will use deadly force if necessary, does not constitute deadly force;

   (3) "dwelling" means any building or structure, though movable or temporary, or a portion thereof, which is for the time being the actor's home or place of lodging.
 


ARTICLE 4.  RESPONSIBILITY

Section 4.01. Mental Disease or Defect Excluding Responsibility.  [cf. Restatement Torts 2d § 283B]

  (1) A person is not responsible for criminal conduct if at the time of such conduct as a result of mental disease or defect he lacks substantial capacity either to appreciate the criminality [wrongfulness] of his conduct or to conform his conduct to the requirements of law.

  (2) As used in this Article, the terms "mental disease or defect" do not include an abnormality manifested only by repeated criminal or otherwise anti-social conduct.
 
 

Section 4.02. Evidence of Mental Disease or Defect Admissible When Relevant to Element of the Offense;  [Mental Disease or Defect Impairing Capacity as Ground for Mitigation of Punishment in Capital Cases].

  (1) Evidence that the defendant suffered from a mental disease or defect is admissible whenever it is relevant to prove that the defendant did or did not have a state of mind which is an element of the offense.

  [(2) Whenever the jury or the Court is authorized to determine or to recommend whether or not the defendant shall be sentenced to death or imprisonment upon conviction, evidence that the capacity of the defendant to appreciate the criminality [wrongfulness] of his conduct or to conform his conduct to the requirements of law was impaired as a result of mental disease or defect is admissible in favor of sentence of imprisonment.]
 
 

Section 4.03. Mental Disease or Defect Excluding Responsibility Is Affirmative Defense;  Requirement of Notice;  Form of Verdict and Judgment When Finding of Irresponsibility Is Made.

  (1) Mental disease or defect excluding responsibility is an affirmative defense.

  (2) Evidence of mental disease or defect excluding responsibility is not admissible unless the defendant, at the time of entering his plea of not guilty or within ten days thereafter or at such later time as the Court may for good cause permit, files a written notice of his purpose to rely on such defense.

  (3) When the defendant is acquitted on the ground of mental disease or defect excluding responsibility, the verdict and the judgment shall so state.
 
 

Section 4.04. Mental Disease or Defect Excluding Fitness to Proceed.

  No person who as a result of mental disease or defect lacks capacity to understand the proceedings against him or to assist in his own defense shall be tried, convicted or sentenced for the commission of an offense so long as such incapacity endures.
 
 

Section 4.05. Psychiatric Examination of Defendant with Respect to Mental Disease or Defect.

  (1) Whenever the defendant has filed a notice of intention to rely on the defense of mental disease or defect excluding responsibility, or there is reason to doubt his fitness to proceed, or reason to believe that mental disease or defect of the defendant will otherwise become an issue in the cause, the Court shall appoint at least one qualified psychiatrist or shall request the Superintendent of the ______ Hospital to designate at least one qualified psychiatrist, which designation may be or include himself, to examine and report upon the mental condition of the defendant.  The Court may order the defendant to be committed to a hospital or other suitable facility for the purpose of the examination for a period of not exceeding sixty days or such longer period as the Court determines to be necessary for the purpose and may direct that a qualified psychiatrist retained by the defendant be permitted to witness and participate in the examination.

  (2) In such examination any method may be employed which is accepted by the medical profession for the examination of those alleged to be suffering from mental disease or defect.

  (3) The report of the examination shall include the following:  (a) a description of the nature of the examination;  (b) a diagnosis of the mental condition of the defendant;  (c) if the defendant suffers from a mental disease or defect, an opinion as to his capacity to understand the proceedings against him and to assist in his own defense;  (d) when a notice of intention to rely on the defense of irresponsibility has been filed, an opinion as to the extent, if any, to which the capacity of the defendant to appreciate the criminality [wrongfulness] of his conduct or to conform his conduct to the requirements of law was impaired at the time of the criminal conduct charged;  and (e) when directed by the Court, an opinion as to the capacity of the defendant to have a particular state of mind which is an element of the offense charged.

  If the examination can not be conducted by reason of the unwillingness of the defendant to participate therein, the report shall so state and shall include, if possible, an opinion as to whether such unwillingness of the defendant was the result of mental disease or defect.

  The report of the examination shall be filed [in triplicate] with the clerk of the Court, who shall cause copies to be delivered to the district attorney and to counsel for the defendant.
 
 

Section 4.06. Determination of Fitness to Proceed;  Effect of Finding of Unfitness;  Proceedings if Fitness is Regained [;  Post-Commitment Hearing].

  (1) When the defendant's fitness to proceed is drawn in question, the issue shall be determined by the Court.  If neither the prosecuting attorney nor counsel for the defendant contests the finding of the report filed pursuant to Section 4.05, the Court may make the determination on the basis of such report.  If the finding is contested, the Court shall hold a hearing on the issue.  If the report is received in evidence upon such hearing, the party who contests the finding thereof shall have the right to summon and to cross-examine the psychiatrists who joined in the report and to offer evidence upon the issue.

  (2) If the Court determines that the defendant lacks fitness to proceed, the proceeding against him shall be suspended, except as provided in Subsection (3) [Subsections (3) and (4) ] of this Section, and the Court shall commit him to the custody of the Commissioner of Mental Hygiene [Public Health or Correction] to be placed in an appropriate institution of the Department of Mental Hygiene [Public Health or Correction] for so long as such unfitness shall endure.  When the Court, on its own motion or upon the application of the Commissioner of Mental Hygiene [Public Health or Correction] or the prosecuting attorney, determines, after a hearing if a hearing is requested, that the defendant has regained fitness to proceed, the proceeding shall be resumed.  If, however, the Court is of the view that so much time has elapsed since the commitment of the defendant that it would be unjust to resume the criminal proceeding, the Court may dismiss the charge and may order the defendant to be discharged or, subject to the law governing the civil commitment of persons suffering from mental disease or defect, order the defendant to be committed to an appropriate institution of the Department of Mental Hygiene [Public Health].

  (3) The fact that the defendant is unfit to proceed does not preclude any legal objection to the prosecution which is susceptible of fair determination prior to trial and without the personal participation of the defendant.

  [Alternative: (3) At any time within ninety days after commitment as provided in Subsection (2) of this Section, or at any later time with permission of the Court granted for good cause, the defendant or his counsel or the Commissioner of Mental Hygiene [Public Health or Correction] may apply for a special post-commitment hearing.  If the application is made by or on behalf of a defendant not represented by counsel, he shall be afforded a reasonable opportunity to obtain counsel, and if he lacks funds to do so, counsel shall be assigned by the Court.  The application shall be granted only if the counsel for the defendant satisfies the Court by affidavit or otherwise that as an attorney he has reasonable grounds for a good faith belief that his client has, on the facts and the law, a defense to the charge other than mental disease or defect excluding responsibility.]

  [(4) If the motion for a special post-commitment hearing is granted, the hearing shall be by the Court without a jury.  No evidence shall be offered at the hearing by either party on the issue of mental disease or defect as a defense to, or in mitigation of, the crime charged.  After hearing, the Court may in an appropriate case quash the indictment or other charge, or find it to be defective or insufficient, or determine that it is not proved beyond a reasonable doubt by the evidence, or otherwise terminate the proceedings on the evidence or the law.  In any such case, unless all defects in the proceedings are promptly cured, the Court shall terminate the commitment ordered under Subsection (2) of this Section and order the defendant to be discharged or, subject to the law governing the civil commitment of persons suffering from mental disease or defect, order the defendant to be committed to an appropriate institution of the Department of Mental Hygiene [Public Health].]
 
 

Section 4.07. Determination of Irresponsibility on Basis of Report;  Access to Defendant by Psychiatrist of His Own Choice;  Form of Expert Testimony When Issue of Responsibility Is Tried.

  (1) If the report filed pursuant to Section 4.05 finds that the defendant at the time of the criminal conduct charged suffered from a mental disease or defect which substantially impaired his capacity to appreciate the criminality [wrongfulness] of his conduct or to conform his conduct to the requirements of law, and the Court, after a hearing if a hearing is requested by the prosecuting attorney or the defendant, is satisfied that such impairment was sufficient to exclude responsibility, the Court on motion of the defendant shall enter judgment of acquittal on the ground of mental disease or defect excluding responsibility.

  (2) When, notwithstanding the report filed pursuant to Section 4.05, the defendant wishes to be examined by a qualified psychiatrist or other expert of his own choice, such examiner shall be permitted to have reasonable access to the defendant for the purposes of such examination.

  (3) Upon the trial, the psychiatrists who reported pursuant to Section 4.05 may be called as witnesses by the prosecution, the defendant or the Court.  If the issue is being tried before a jury, the jury may be informed that the psychiatrists were designated by the Court or by the Superintendent of the ______ Hospital at the request of the Court, as the case may be.  If called by the Court, the witness shall be subject to cross-examination by the prosecution and by the defendant.  Both the prosecution and the defendant may summon any other qualified psychiatrist or other expert to testify, but no one who has not examined the defendant shall be competent to testify to an expert opinion with respect to the mental condition or responsibility of the defendant, as distinguished from the validity of the procedure followed by, or the general scientific propositions stated by, another witness.

  (4) When a psychiatrist or other expert who has examined the defendant testifies concerning his mental condition, he shall be permitted to make a statement as to the nature of his examination, his diagnosis of the mental condition of the defendant at the time of the commission of the offense charged and his opinion as to the extent, if any, to which the capacity of the defendant to appreciate the criminality [wrongfulness] of his conduct or to conform his conduct to the requirements of law or to have a particular state of mind which is an element of the offense charged was impaired as a result of mental disease or defect at that time.  He shall be permitted to make any explanation reasonably serving to clarify his diagnosis and opinion and may be cross-examined as to any matter bearing on his competency or credibility or the validity of his diagnosis or opinion.
 
 

Section 4.08. Legal Effect of Acquittal on the Ground of Mental Disease or Defect Excluding Responsibility;  Commitment;  Release or Discharge.

  (1) When a defendant is acquitted on the ground of mental disease or defect excluding responsibility, the Court shall order him to be committed to the custody of the Commissioner of Mental Hygiene [Public Health] to be placed in an appropriate institution for custody, care and treatment.

  (2) If the Commissioner of Mental Hygiene [Public Health] is of the view that a person committed to his custody, pursuant to paragraph (1) of this Section, may be discharged or released on condition without danger to himself or to others, he shall make application for the discharge or release of such person in a report to the Court by which such person was committed and shall transmit a copy of such application and report to the prosecuting attorney of the county [parish] from which the defendant was committed.  The Court shall thereupon appoint at least two qualified psychiatrists to examine such person and to report within sixty days, or such longer period as the Court determines to be necessary for the purpose, their opinion as to his mental condition.  To facilitate such examination and the proceedings thereon, the Court may cause such person to be confined in any institution located near the place where the Court sits, which may hereafter be designated by the Commissioner of Mental Hygiene [Public Health] as suitable for the temporary detention of irresponsible persons.

  (3) If the Court is satisfied by the report filed pursuant to paragraph (2) of this Section and such testimony of the reporting psychiatrists as the Court deems necessary that the committed person may be discharged or released on condition without danger to himself or others, the Court shall order his discharge or his release on such conditions as the Court determines to be necessary.  If the Court is not so satisfied, it shall promptly order a hearing to determine whether such person may safely be discharged or released.  Any such hearing shall be deemed a civil proceeding and the burden shall be upon the committed person to prove that he may safely be discharged or released.  According to the determination of the Court upon the hearing, the committed person shall thereupon be discharged or released on such conditions as the Court determines to be necessary, or shall be recommitted to the custody of the Commissioner of Mental Hygiene [Public Health], subject to discharge or release only in accordance with the procedure prescribed above for a first hearing.

  (4) If, within [five] years after the conditional release of a committed person, the Court shall determine, after hearing evidence, that the conditions of release have not been fulfilled and that for the safety of such person or for the safety of others his conditional release should be revoked, the Court shall forthwith order him to be recommitted to the Commissioner of Mental Hygiene [Public Health], subject to discharge or release only in accordance with the procedure prescribed above for a first hearing.

  (5) A committed person may make application for his discharge or release to the Court by which he was committed, and the procedure to be followed upon such application shall be the same as that prescribed above in the case of an application by the Commissioner of Mental Hygiene [Public Health].  However, no such application by a committed person need be considered until he has been confined for a period of not less than [six months] from the date of the order of commitment, and if the determination of the Court be adverse to the application, such person shall not be permitted to file a further application until [one year] has elapsed from the date of any preceding hearing on an application for his release or discharge.
 
 

Section 4.09. Statements for Purposes of Examination or Treatment Inadmissible Except on Issue of Mental Condition.

  A statement made by a person subjected to psychiatric examination or treatment pursuant to Sections 4.05, 4.06 or 4.08 for the purposes of such examination or treatment shall not be admissible in evidence against him in any criminal proceeding on any issue other than that of his mental condition but it shall be admissible upon that issue, whether or not it would otherwise be deemed a privileged communication [, unless such statement constitutes an admission of guilt of the crime charged].
 
 

Section 4.10. Immaturity Excluding Criminal Convictions;  Transfer of Proceedings to Juvenile Court.  [cf. Restatement Torts 2d § 283A]

  (1) A person shall not be tried for or convicted of an offense if:

    (a) at the time of the conduct charged to constitute the offense he was less than sixteen years of age [, in which case the Juvenile Court shall have exclusive jurisdiction*];  or

    (b) at the time of the conduct charged to constitute the offense he was sixteen or seventeen years of age, unless:

      (i) the Juvenile Court has no jurisdiction over him, or,

      (ii) the Juvenile Court has entered an order waiving jurisdiction and consenting to the institution of criminal proceedings against him.

  (2) No court shall have jurisdiction to try or convict a person of an offense if criminal proceedings against him are barred by Subsection (1) of this Section.  When it appears that a person charged with the commission of an offense may be of such an age that criminal proceedings may be barred under Subsection (1) of this Section, the Court shall hold a hearing thereon, and the burden shall be on the prosecution to establish to the satisfaction of the Court that the criminal proceeding is not barred upon such grounds.  If the Court determines that the proceeding is barred, custody of the person charged shall be surrendered to the Juvenile Court, and the case, including all papers and processes relating thereto, shall be transferred.

------------------------
 *  The bracketed words are unnecessary if the Juvenile Court Act so provides or is amended accordingly.
 


ARTICLE 5.  INCHOATE CRIMES

Section 5.01. Criminal Attempt.  [cf. Restatement Torts 2d §§ 22, 23]

  (1) Definition of Attempt.  A person is guilty of an attempt to commit a crime if, acting with the kind of culpability otherwise required for commission of the crime, he:

    (a) purposely engages in conduct which would constitute the crime if the attendant circumstances were as he believes them to be;  or

    (b) when causing a particular result is an element of the crime, does or omits to do anything with the purpose of causing or with the belief that it will cause such result without further conduct on his part;  or

    (c) purposely does or omits to do anything which, under the circumstances as he believes them to be, is an act or omission constituting a substantial step in a course of conduct planned to culminate in his commission of the crime.

  (2) Conduct Which May Be Held Substantial Step Under Subsection (1)(c).  Conduct shall not be held to constitute a substantial step under Subsection (1)(c) of this Section unless it is strongly corroborative of the actor's criminal purpose.  Without negativing the sufficiency of other conduct, the following, if strongly corroborative of the actor's criminal purpose, shall not be held insufficient as a matter of law:

    (a) lying in wait, searching for or following the contemplated victim of the crime;

    (b) enticing or seeking to entice the contemplated victim of the crime to go to the place contemplated for its commission;

    (c) reconnoitering the place contemplated for the commission of the crime;

    (d) unlawful entry of a structure, vehicle or enclosure in which it is contemplated that the crime will be committed;

    (e) possession of materials to be employed in the commission of the crime, which are specially designed for such unlawful use or which can serve no lawful purpose of the actor under the circumstances;

    (f) possession, collection or fabrication of materials to be employed in the commission of the crime, at or near the place contemplated for its commission, where such possession, collection or fabrication serves no lawful purpose of the actor under the circumstances;

    (g) soliciting an innocent agent to engage in conduct constituting an element of the crime.

  (3) Conduct Designed to Aid Another in Commission of a Crime.  A person who engages in conduct designed to aid another to commit a crime which would establish his complicity under Section 2.06 if the crime were committed by such other person, is guilty of an attempt to commit the crime, although the crime is not committed or attempted by such other person.

  (4) Renunciation of Criminal Purpose.  When the actor's conduct would otherwise constitute an attempt under Subsection (1)(b) or (1)(c) of this Section, it is an affirmative defense that he abandoned his effort to commit the crime or otherwise prevented its commission, under circumstances manifesting a complete and voluntary renunciation of his criminal purpose.  The establishment of such defense does not, however, affect the liability of an accomplice who did not join in such abandonment or prevention.

  Within the meaning of this Article, renunciation of criminal purpose is not voluntary if it is motivated, in whole or in part, by circumstances, not present or apparent at the inception of the actor's course of conduct, which increase the probability of detection or apprehension or which make more difficult the accomplishment of the criminal purpose.  Renunciation is not complete if it is motivated by a decision to postpone the criminal conduct until a more advantageous time or to transfer the criminal effort to another but similar objective or victim.
 
 

Section 5.02. Criminal Solicitation.

  (1) Definition of Solicitation.  A person is guilty of solicitation to commit a crime if with the purpose of promoting or facilitating its commission he commands, encourages or requests another person to engage in specific conduct which would constitute such crime or an attempt to commit such crime or which would establish his complicity in its commission or attempted commission.

  (2) Uncommunicated Solicitation.  It is immaterial under Subsection (1) of this Section that the actor fails to communicate with the person he solicits to commit a crime if his conduct was designed to effect such communication.

  (3) Renunciation of Criminal Purpose.  It is an affirmative defense that the actor, after soliciting another person to commit a crime, persuaded him not to do so or otherwise prevented the commission of the crime, under circumstances manifesting a complete and voluntary renunciation of his criminal purpose.
 
 

Section 5.03. Criminal Conspiracy.

  (1) Definition of Conspiracy.  A person is guilty of conspiracy with another person or persons to commit a crime if with the purpose of promoting or facilitating its commission he:

    (a) agrees with such other person or persons that they or one or more of them will engage in conduct which constitutes such crime or an attempt or solicitation to commit such crime;  or

    (b) agrees to aid such other person or persons in the planning or commission of such crime or of an attempt or solicitation to commit such crime.

  (2) Scope of Conspiratorial Relationship.  If a person guilty of conspiracy, as defined by Subsection (1) of this Section, knows that a person with whom he conspires to commit a crime has conspired with another person or persons to commit the same crime, he is guilty of conspiring with such other person or persons, whether or not he knows their identity, to commit such crime.

  (3) Conspiracy With Multiple Criminal Objectives.  If a person conspires to commit a number of crimes, he is guilty of only one conspiracy so long as such multiple crimes are the object of the same agreement or continuous conspiratorial relationship.

  (4) Joinder and Venue in Conspiracy Prosecutions.

    (a) Subject to the provisions of paragraph (b) of this Subsection, two or more persons charged with criminal conspiracy may be prosecuted jointly if:

      (i) they are charged with conspiring with one another;  or

      (ii) the conspiracies alleged, whether they have the same or different parties, are so related that they constitute different aspects of a scheme of organized criminal conduct.

    (b) In any joint prosecution under paragraph (a) of this Subsection:

      (i) no defendant shall be charged with a conspiracy in any county [parish or district] other than one in which he entered into such conspiracy or in which an overt act pursuant to such conspiracy was done by him or by a person with whom he conspired;  and

      (ii) neither the liability of any defendant nor the admissibility against him of evidence of acts or declarations of another shall be enlarged by such joinder;  and

      (iii) the Court shall order a severance or take a special verdict as to any defendant who so requests, if it deems it necessary or appropriate to promote the fair determination of his guilt or innocence, and shall take any other proper measures to protect the fairness of the trial.

  (5) Overt Act.  No person may be convicted of conspiracy to commit a crime, other than a felony of the first or second degree, unless an overt act in pursuance of such conspiracy is alleged and proved to have been done by him or by a person with whom he conspired.

  (6) Renunciation of Criminal Purpose.  It is an affirmative defense that the actor, after conspiring to commit a crime, thwarted the success of the conspiracy, under circumstances manifesting a complete and voluntary renunciation of his criminal purpose.

  (7) Duration of Conspiracy.  For purposes of Section 1.06(4):

    (a) conspiracy is a continuing course of conduct which terminates when the crime or crimes which are its object are committed or the agreement that they be committed is abandoned by the defendant and by those with whom he conspired;  and

    (b) such abandonment is presumed if neither the defendant nor anyone with whom he conspired does any overt act in pursuance of the conspiracy during the applicable period of limitation;  and

    (c) if an individual abandons the agreement, the conspiracy is terminated as to him only if and when he advises those with whom he conspired of his abandonment or he informs the law enforcement authorities of the existence of the conspiracy and of his participation therein.
 
 

Section 5.04. Incapacity, Irresponsibility or Immunity of Party to Solicitation or Conspiracy.

  (1) Except as provided in Subsection (2) of this Section, it is immaterial to the liability of a person who solicits or conspires with another to commit a crime that:

    (a) he or the person whom he solicits or with whom he conspires does not occupy a particular position or have a particular characteristic which is an element of such crime, if he believes that one of them does;  or

    (b) the person whom he solicits or with whom he conspires is irresponsible or has an immunity to prosecution or conviction for the commission of the crime.

  (2) It is a defense to a charge of solicitation or conspiracy to commit a crime that if the criminal object were achieved, the actor would not be guilty of a crime under the law defining the offense or as an accomplice under Section 2.06(5) or 2.06(6)(a) or (b).
 
 

Section 5.05. Grading of Criminal Attempt, Solicitation and Conspiracy;  Mitigation in Cases of Lesser Danger;  Multiple Convictions Barred.

  (1) Grading.  Except as otherwise provided in this Section, attempt, solicitation and conspiracy are crimes of the same grade and degree as the most serious offense which is attempted or solicited or is an object of the conspiracy.  An attempt, solicitation or conspiracy to commit a [capital crime or a] felony of the first degree is a felony of the second degree.

  (2) Mitigation.  If the particular conduct charged to constitute a criminal attempt, solicitation or conspiracy is so inherently unlikely to result or culminate in the commission of a crime that neither such conduct nor the actor presents a public danger warranting the grading of such offense under this Section, the Court shall exercise its power under Section 6.12 to enter judgment and impose sentence for a crime of lower grade or degree or, in extreme cases, may dismiss the prosecution.

  (3) Multiple Convictions.  A person may not be convicted of more than one offense defined by this Article for conduct designed to commit or to culminate in the commission of the same crime.
 
 

Section 5.06. Possessing Instruments of Crime;  Weapons.

  (1) Criminal Instruments Generally.  A person commits a misdemeanor if he possesses any instrument of crime with purpose to employ it criminally.  "Instrument of crime" means:

    (a) anything specially made or specially adapted for criminal use;  or

    (b) anything commonly used for criminal purposes and possessed by the actor under circumstances which do not negative unlawful purpose.

  (2) Presumption of Criminal Purpose from Possession of Weapon.  If a person possesses a firearm or other weapon on or about his person, in a vehicle occupied by him, or otherwise readily available for use, it is presumed that he had the purpose to employ it criminally, unless:

    (a) the weapon is possessed in the actor's home or place of business;

    (b) the actor is licensed or otherwise authorized by law to possess such weapon;  or

    (c) the weapon is of a type commonly used in lawful sport.

 "Weapon" means anything readily capable of lethal use and possessed under circumstances not manifestly appropriate for lawful uses which it may have; the term includes a firearm which is not loaded or lacks a clip or other component to render it immediately operable, and components which can readily be assembled into a weapon.

  (3) Presumptions as to Possession of Criminal Instruments in Automobiles.  Where a weapon or other instrument of crime is found in an automobile, it shall be presumed to be in the possession of the occupant if there is but one.  If there is more than one occupant, it shall be presumed to be in the possession of all, except under the following circumstances:

    (a) where it is found upon the person of one of the occupants;

    (b) where the automobile is not a stolen one and the weapon or instrument is found out of view in a glove compartment, car trunk, or other enclosed customary depository, in which case it shall be presumed to be in the possession of the occupant or occupants who own or have authority to operate the automobile;

    (c) in the case of a taxicab, a weapon or instrument found in the passengers' portion of the vehicle shall be presumed to be in the possession of all the passengers, if there are any, and, if not, in the possession of the driver.
 
 

Section 5.07. Prohibited Offensive Weapons.

  A person commits a misdemeanor if, except as authorized by law, he makes, repairs, sells, or otherwise deals in, uses, or possesses any offensive weapon.  "Offensive weapon" means any bomb, machine gun, sawed-off shotgun, firearm specially made or specially adapted for concealment or silent discharge, any blackjack, sandbag, metal knuckles, dagger, or other implement for the infliction of serious bodily injury which serves no common lawful purpose.  It is a defense under this Section for the defendant to prove by a preponderance of evidence that he possessed or dealt with the weapon solely as a curio or in a dramatic performance, or that he possessed it briefly in consequence of having found it or taken it from an aggressor, or under circumstances similarly negativing any purpose or likelihood that the weapon would be used unlawfully.  The presumptions provided in Section 5.06(3) are applicable to prosecutions under this Section.
 


ARTICLE 6.  AUTHORIZED DISPOSITION OF OFFENDERS

Section 6.01. Degrees of Felonies.

  (1) Felonies defined by this Code are classified, for the purpose of sentence, into three degrees, as follows:

    (a) felonies of the first degree;

    (b) felonies of the second degree;

    (c) felonies of the third degree.

  A felony is of the first or second degree when it is so designated by the Code.  A crime declared to be a felony, without specification of degree, is of the third degree.

  (2) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a felony defined by any statute of this State other than this Code shall constitute for the purpose of sentence a felony of the third degree.
 
 

Section 6.02. Sentence in Accordance with Code;  Authorized Dispositions.

  (1) No person convicted of an offense shall be sentenced otherwise than in accordance with this Article.

  [(2) The Court shall sentence a person who has been convicted of murder to death or imprisonment, in accordance with Section 210.6.]

  (3) Except as provided in Subsection (2) of this Section and subject to the applicable provisions of the Code, the Court may suspend the imposition of sentence on a person who has been convicted of a crime, may order him to be committed in lieu of sentence, in accordance with Section 6.13, or may sentence him as follows:

    (a) to pay a fine authorized by Section 6.03;  or

    (b) to be placed on probation [, and, in the case of a person convicted of a felony or misdemeanor to imprisonment for a term fixed by the Court not exceeding thirty days to be served as a condition of probation];  or

    (c) to imprisonment for a term authorized by Sections 6.05, 6.06, 6.07, 6.08, 6.09, or 7.06;  or

    (d) to fine and probation or fine and imprisonment, but not to probation and imprisonment [, except as authorized in paragraph (b) of this Subsection].

  (4) The Court may suspend the imposition of sentence on a person who has been convicted of a violation or may sentence him to pay a fine authorized by Section 6.03.

  (5) This Article does not deprive the Court of any authority conferred by law to decree a forfeiture of property, suspend or cancel a license, remove a person from office, or impose any other civil penalty.  Such a judgment or order may be included in the sentence.
 
 

Section 6.03. Fines.

  A person who has been convicted of an offense may be sentenced to pay a fine not exceeding:

   (1) $10,000, when the conviction is of a felony of the first or second degree;

   (2) $5,000, when the conviction is of a felony of the third degree;

   (3) $1,000, when the conviction is of a misdemeanor;

   (4) $500, when the conviction is of a petty misdemeanor or a violation;

   (5) any higher amount equal to double the pecuniary gain derived from the offense by the offender;

   (6) any higher amount specifically authorized by statute.
 
 

Section 6.04. Penalties Against Corporations and Unincorporated Association;  Forfeiture of Corporate Charter or Revocation of Certificate Authorizing Foreign Corporation to Do Business in the State.

  (1) The Court may suspend the sentence of a corporation or an unincorporated association which has been convicted of an offense or may sentence it to pay a fine authorized by Section 6.03.

  (2)(a) The [prosecuting attorney] is authorized to institute civil proceedings in the appropriate court of general jurisdiction to forfeit the charter of a corporation organized under the laws of this State or to revoke the certificate authorizing a foreign corporation to conduct business in this State.  The Court may order the charter forfeited or the certificate revoked upon finding (i) that the board of directors or a high managerial agent acting in behalf of the corporation has, in conducting the corporation's affairs, purposely engaged in a persistent course of criminal conduct and (ii) that for the prevention of future criminal conduct of the same character, the public interest requires the charter of the corporation to be forfeited and the corporation to be dissolved or the certificate to be revoked.

   (b) When a corporation is convicted of a crime or a high managerial agent of a corporation, as defined in Section 2.07, is convicted of a crime committed in the conduct of the affairs of the corporation, the Court, in sentencing the corporation or the agent, may direct the [prosecuting attorney] to institute proceedings authorized by paragraph (a) of this Subsection.

   (c) The proceedings authorized by paragraph (a) of this Subsection shall be conducted in accordance with the procedures authorized by law for the involuntary dissolution of a corporation or the revocation of the certificate authorizing a foreign corporation to conduct business in this State.  Such proceedings shall be deemed additional to any other proceedings authorized by law for the purpose of forfeiting the charter of a corporation or revoking the certificate of a foreign corporation.
 
 

Section 6.05. Young Adult Offenders.

  (1) Specialized Correctional Treatment.  A young adult offender is a person convicted of a crime who, at the time of sentencing, is sixteen but less than twenty-two years of age.  A young adult offender who is sentenced to a term of imprisonment which may exceed thirty days [alternatives:  (1) ninety days;  (2) one year] shall be committed to the custody of the Division of Young Adult Correction of the Department of Correction, and shall receive, as far as practicable, such special and individualized correctional and rehabilitative treatment as may be appropriate to his needs.

  (2) Special Term.  A young adult offender convicted of a felony may, in lieu of any other sentence of imprisonment authorized by this Article, be sentenced to a special term of imprisonment without a minimum and with a maximum of four years, regardless of the degree of the felony involved, if the Court is of the opinion that such special term is adequate for his correction and rehabilitation and will not jeopardize the protection of the public.

  [(3) Removal of Disabilities;  Vacation of Conviction.

    (a) In sentencing a young adult offender to the special term provided by this Section or to any sentence other than one of imprisonment, the Court may order that so long as he is not convicted of another felony, the judgment shall not constitute a conviction for the purposes of any disqualification or disability imposed by law upon conviction of a crime.

    (b) When any young adult offender is unconditionally discharged from probation or parole before the expiration of the maximum term thereof, the Court may enter an order vacating the judgment of conviction.]

  [(4) Commitment for Observation.  If, after pre-sentence investigation, the Court desires additional information concerning a young adult offender before imposing sentence, it may order that he be committed, for a period not exceeding ninety days, to the custody of the Division of Young Adult Correction of the Department of Correction for observation and study at an appropriate reception or classification center.  Such Division of the Department of Correction and the [Young Adult Division of the] Board of Parole shall advise the Court of their findings and recommendations on or before the expiration of such ninety-day period.]
 
 

Section 6.06. Sentence of Imprisonment for Felony;  Ordinary Terms.

  A person who has been convicted of a felony may be sentenced to imprisonment, as follows:

   (1) in the case of a felony of the first degree, for a term the minimum of which shall be fixed by the Court at not less than one year nor more than ten years, and the maximum of which shall be life imprisonment;

   (2) in the case of a felony of the second degree, for a term the minimum of which shall be fixed by the Court at not less than one year nor more than three years, and the maximum of which shall be ten years;

   (3) in the case of a felony of the third degree, for a term the minimum of which shall be fixed by the Court at not less than one year nor more than two years, and the maximum of which shall be five years.
 
 

Alternate Section 6.06. Sentence of Imprisonment for Felony;  Ordinary Terms.

  A person who has been convicted of a felony may be sentenced to imprisonment, as follows:

   (1) in the case of a felony of the first degree, for a term the minimum of which shall be fixed by the Court at not less than one year nor more than ten years, and the maximum at not more than twenty years or at life imprisonment;

   (2) in the case of a felony of the second degree, for a term the minimum of which shall be fixed by the Court at not less than one year nor more than three years, and the maximum at not more than ten years;

   (3) in the case of a felony of the third degree, for a term the minimum of which shall be fixed by the Court at not less than one year nor more than two years, and the maximum at not more than five years.

  No sentence shall be imposed under this Section of which the minimum is longer than one-half the maximum, or, when the maximum is life imprisonment, longer than ten years.
 
 

Section 6.07. Sentence of Imprisonment for Felony;  Extended Terms.

  In the cases designated in Section 7.03, a person who has been convicted of a felony may be sentenced to an extended term of imprisonment, as follows:

   (1) in the case of a felony of the first degree, for a term the minimum of which shall be fixed by the Court at not less than five years nor more than ten years, and the maximum of which shall be life imprisonment;

   (2) in the case of a felony of the second degree, for a term the minimum of  which shall be fixed by the Court at not less than one year nor more than five years, and the maximum of which shall be fixed by the Court at not less than ten nor more than twenty years;

   (3) in the case of a felony of the third degree, for a term the minimum of which shall be fixed by the Court at not less than one year nor more than three years, and the maximum of which shall be fixed by the Court at not less than five nor more than ten years.
 
 

Section 6.08. Sentence of Imprisonment for Misdemeanors and Petty Misdemeanors;  Ordinary Terms.

  A person who has been convicted of a misdemeanor or a petty misdemeanor may be sentenced to imprisonment for a definite term which shall be fixed by the Court and shall not exceed one year in the case of a misdemeanor or thirty days in the case of a petty misdemeanor.
 
 

Section 6.09. Sentence of Imprisonment for Misdemeanors and Petty Misdemeanors;  Extended Terms.

  (1) In the cases designated in Section 7.04, a person who has been convicted of a misdemeanor or a petty misdemeanor may be sentenced to an extended term of imprisonment, as follows:

    (a) in the case of a misdemeanor, for a term the minimum of which shall be fixed by the Court at not more than one year and the maximum of which shall be  three years;

    (b) in the case of a petty misdemeanor, for a term the minimum of which shall be fixed by the Court at not more than six months and the maximum of which shall be two years.

  (2) No such sentence for an extended term shall be imposed unless:

    (a) the Director of Correction has certified that there is an institution in the Department of Correction, or in a county, city [or other appropriate political subdivision of the State] which is appropriate for the detention and correctional treatment of such misdemeanants or petty misdemeanants, and that such institution is available to receive such commitments;  and

    (b) the [Board of Parole] [Parole Administrator] has certified that the Board of Parole is able to visit such institution and to assume responsibility for the release of such prisoners on parole and for their parole supervision.
 
 

Section 6.10. First Release of All Offenders on Parole;  Sentence of Imprisonment Includes Separate Parole Term;  Length of Parole Term;  Length of Recommitment and Reparole After Revocation of Parole;  Final Unconditional Release.

  (1) First Release of All Offenders on Parole.  An offender sentenced to an indefinite term of imprisonment in excess of one year under Section 6.05, 6.06, 6.07, 6.09 or 7.06 shall be released conditionally on parole at or before the expiration of the maximum of such term, in accordance with Article 305.

  (2) Sentence of Imprisonment Includes Separate Parole Term;  Length of Parole Term.  A sentence to an indefinite term of imprisonment in excess of one year under Section 6.05, 6.06, 6.07, 6.09 or 7.06 includes as a separate portion of the sentence a term of parole or of recommitment for violation of the conditions of parole which governs the duration of parole or recommitment after the offender's first conditional release on parole.  The minimum of such term is one year and the maximum is five years, unless the sentence was imposed under Section 6.05(2) or Section 6.09, in which case the maximum is two years.

  (3) Length of Recommitment and Reparole After Revocation of Parole.  If an offender is recommitted upon revocation of his parole, the term of further imprisonment upon such recommitment and of any subsequent reparole or recommitment under the same sentence shall be fixed by the Board of Parole but shall not exceed in aggregate length the unserved balance of the maximum parole term provided by Subsection (2) of this Section.

  (4) Final Unconditional Release.  When the maximum of his parole term has expired or he has been sooner discharged from parole under Section 305.12, an offender shall be deemed to have served his sentence and shall be released unconditionally.
 
 

Section 6.11. Place of imprisonment.

  (1) When a person is sentenced to imprisonment for an indefinite term with a maximum in excess of one year, the Court shall commit him to the custody of the Department of Correction [or other single department or agency] for the term of his sentence and until released in accordance with law.

  (2) When a person is sentenced to imprisonment for a definite term, the Court shall designate the institution or agency to which he is committed for the term of his sentence and until released in accordance with law.
 
 

Section 6.12. Reduction of Conviction by Court to Lesser Degree of Felony or to Misdemeanor.

  If, when a person has been convicted of a felony, the Court, having regard to the nature and circumstances of the crime and to the history and character of the defendant, is of the view that it would be unduly harsh to sentence the offender in accordance with the Code, the Court may enter judgment of conviction for a lesser degree of felony or for a misdemeanor and impose sentence accordingly.
 
 

Section 6.13. Civil Commitment in Lieu of Prosecution or of Sentence.

  (1) When a person prosecuted for a [felony of the third degree,] misdemeanor or petty misdemeanor is a chronic alcoholic, narcotic addict [or prostitute] or person suffering from mental abnormality and the Court is authorized by law to order the civil commitment of such person to a hospital or other institution for medical, psychiatric or other rehabilitative treatment, the Court may order such commitment and dismiss the prosecution.

The order of commitment may be made after conviction, in which event the Court may set aside the verdict or judgment of conviction and dismiss the prosecution.

  (2) The Court shall not make an order under Subsection (1) of this Section unless it is of the view that it will substantially further the rehabilitation of the defendant and will not jeopardize the protection of the public.
 



ARTICLE 7.  AUTHORITY OF COURT IN SENTENCING

Section 7.01. Criteria for Withholding Sentence of Imprisonment and for Placing Defendant on Probation.

  (1) The Court shall deal with a person who has been convicted of a crime without imposing sentence of imprisonment unless, having regard to the nature and circumstances of the crime and the history, character and condition of the defendant, it is of the opinion that his imprisonment is necessary for protection of the public because:

    (a) there is undue risk that during the period of a suspended sentence or probation the defendant will commit another crime;  or

    (b) the defendant is in need of correctional treatment that can be provided most effectively by his commitment to an institution;  or

    (c) a lesser sentence will depreciate the seriousness of the defendant's crime.

  (2) The following grounds, while not controlling the discretion of the Court, shall be accorded weight in favor of withholding sentence of imprisonment:

    (a) the defendant's criminal conduct neither caused nor threatened serious harm;

    (b) the defendant did not contemplate that his criminal conduct would cause or threaten serious harm;

    (c) the defendant acted under a strong provocation;

    (d) there were substantial grounds tending to excuse or justify the defendant's criminal conduct, though failing to establish a defense;

    (e) the victim of the defendant's criminal conduct induced or facilitated its commission;

    (f) the defendant has compensated or will compensate the victim of his criminal conduct for the damage or injury that he sustained;

    (g) the defendant has no history of prior delinquency or criminal activity or has led a law-abiding life for a substantial period of time before the commission of the present crime;

    (h) the defendant's criminal conduct was the result of circumstances unlikely to recur;

    (i) the character and attitudes of the defendant indicate that he is unlikely to commit another crime;

    (j) the defendant is particularly likely to respond affirmatively to probationary treatment;

    (k) the imprisonment of the defendant would entail excessive hardship to himself or his dependents.

  (3) When a person who has been convicted of a crime is not sentenced to imprisonment, the Court shall place him on probation if he is in need of the supervision, guidance, assistance or direction that the probation service can provide.
 
 

Section 7.02. Criteria for Imposing Fines.

  (1) The Court shall not sentence a defendant only to pay a fine, when any other disposition is authorized by law, unless having regard to the nature and circumstances of the crime and to the history and character of the defendant, it is of the opinion that the fine alone suffices for protection of the public.

  (2) The Court shall not sentence a defendant to pay a fine in addition to a sentence of imprisonment or probation unless:

    (a) the defendant has derived a pecuniary gain from the crime;  or

    (b) the Court is of opinion that a fine is specially adapted to deterrence of the crime involved or to the correction of the offender.

  (3) The Court shall not sentence a defendant to pay a fine unless:

    (a) the defendant is or will be able to pay the fine;  and

    (b) the fine will not prevent the defendant from making restitution or reparation to the victim of the crime.

  (4) In determining the amount and method of payment of a fine, the Court shall take into account the financial resources of the defendant and the nature of the burden that its payment will impose.
 
 

Section 7.03. Criteria for Sentence of Extended Term of Imprisonment;  Felonies.

  The Court may sentence a person who has been convicted of a felony to an extended term of imprisonment if it finds one or more of the grounds specified in this Section.  The finding of the Court shall be incorporated in the record.

   (1) The defendant is a persistent offender whose commitment for an extended term is necessary for protection of the public.

   The Court shall not make such a finding unless the defendant is over twenty-one years of age and has previously been convicted of two felonies or of one felony and two misdemeanors, committed at different times when he was over [insert Juvenile Court age] years of age.

   (2) The defendant is a professional criminal whose commitment for an extended term is necessary for protection of the public.

   The Court shall not make such a finding unless the defendant is over twenty-one years of age and:

     (a) the circumstances of the crime show that the defendant has knowingly devoted himself to criminal activity as a major source of livelihood;  or

     (b) the defendant has substantial income or resources not explained to be derived from a source other than criminal activity.

   (3) The defendant is a dangerous, mentally abnormal person whose commitment for an extended term is necessary for protection of the public.

   The Court shall not make such a finding unless the defendant has been subjected to a psychiatric examination resulting in the conclusions that his mental condition is gravely abnormal;  that his criminal conduct has been characterized by a pattern of repetitive or compulsive behavior or by persistent aggressive behavior with heedless indifference to consequences; and that such condition makes him a serious danger to others.

   (4) The defendant is a multiple offender whose criminality was so extensive that a sentence of imprisonment for an extended term is warranted.

    The Court shall not make such a finding unless:

     (a) the defendant is being sentenced for two or more felonies, or is already under sentence of imprisonment for felony, and the sentences of imprisonment involved will run concurrently under Section 7.06;  or

     (b) the defendant admits in open court the commission of one or more other felonies and asks that they be taken into account when he is sentenced;  and

     (c) the longest sentences of imprisonment authorized for each of the defendant's crimes, including admitted crimes taken into account, if made to run consecutively would exceed in length the minimum and maximum of the extended term imposed.
 
 

Section 7.04. Criteria for Sentence of Extended Term of Imprisonment;  Misdemeanors and Petty Misdemeanors.

  The Court may sentence a person who has been convicted of a misdemeanor or petty misdemeanor to an extended term of imprisonment if it finds one or more of the grounds specified in this Section.  The finding of the Court shall be incorporated in the record.

   (1) The defendant is a persistent offender whose commitment for an extended term is necessary for protection of the public.

   The Court shall not make such a finding unless the defendant has previously been convicted of two crimes, committed at different times when he was over [insert Juvenile Court age] years of age.

   (2) The defendant is a professional criminal whose commitment for an extended term is necessary for protection of the public.

    The Court shall not make such a finding unless:

     (a) the circumstances of the crime show that the defendant has knowingly devoted himself to criminal activity as a major source of livelihood;  or

     (b) the defendant has substantial income or resources not explained to be derived from a source other than criminal activity.

   (3) The defendant is a chronic alcoholic, narcotic addict, prostitute or person of abnormal mental condition who requires rehabilitative treatment for a substantial period of time.

   The Court shall not make such a finding unless, with respect to the particular category to which the defendant belongs, the Director of Correction has certified that there is a specialized institution or facility which is satisfactory for the rehabilitative treatment of such persons and which otherwise meets the requirements of Section 6.09, Subsection (2).

   (4) The defendant is a multiple offender whose criminality was so extensive that a sentence of imprisonment for an extended term is warranted.

    The Court shall not make such a finding unless:

     (a) the defendant is being sentenced for a number of misdemeanors or petty misdemeanors or is already under sentence of imprisonment for crime of such grades, or admits in open court the commission of one or more such crimes and asks that they be taken into account when he is sentenced;  and

     (b) maximum fixed sentences of imprisonment for each of the defendant's crimes, including admitted crimes taken into account, if made to run consecutively, would exceed in length the maximum period of the extended term imposed.
 
 

Section 7.05. Former Conviction in Another Jurisdiction;  and Proof of Conviction;  Sentence Taking Into Account Admitted Crimes Bars Subsequent Conviction for Such Crimes.

  (1) For purposes of paragraph (1) of Section 7.03 or 7.04, a conviction of the commission of a crime in another jurisdiction shall constitute a previous conviction.  Such conviction shall be deemed to have been of a felony if sentence of death or of imprisonment in excess of one year was authorized under the law of such other jurisdiction, of a misdemeanor if sentence of imprisonment in excess of thirty days but not in excess of a year was authorized and of a petty misdemeanor if sentence of imprisonment for not more than thirty days was authorized.

  (2) An adjudication by a court of competent jurisdiction that the defendant committed a crime constitutes a conviction for purposes of Sections 7.03 to 7.05 inclusive, although sentence or the execution thereof was suspended, provided that the time to appeal has expired and that the defendant was not pardoned on the ground of innocence.

  (3) Prior conviction may be proved by any evidence, including fingerprint records made in connection with arrest, conviction or imprisonment, that reasonably satisfies the Court that the defendant was convicted.

  (4) When the defendant has asked that other crimes admitted in open court be taken into account when he is sentenced and the Court has not rejected such request, the sentence shall bar the prosecution or conviction of the defendant in this State for any such admitted crime.
 
 

Section 7.06. Multiple Sentences;  Concurrent and Consecutive Terms.

  (1) Sentences of Imprisonment for More Than One Crime.  When multiple sentences of imprisonment are imposed on a defendant for more than one crime, including a crime for which a previous suspended sentence or sentence of probation has been revoked, such multiple sentences shall run concurrently or consecutively as the Court determines at the time of sentence, except that:

    (a) a definite and an indefinite term shall run concurrently and both sentences shall be satisfied by service of the indefinite term;  and

    (b) the aggregate of consecutive definite terms shall not exceed one year;  and

    (c) the aggregate of consecutive indefinite terms shall not exceed in minimum or maximum length the longest extended term authorized for the highest grade and degree of crime for which any of the sentences was imposed;  and

    (d) not more than one sentence for an extended term shall be imposed.

  (2) Sentences of Imprisonment Imposed at Different Times.  When a defendant who has previously been sentenced to imprisonment is subsequently sentenced to another term for a crime committed prior to the former sentence, other than a crime committed while in custody:

    (a) the multiple sentences imposed shall so far as possible conform to Subsection (1) of this Section;  and

    (b) whether the Court determines that the terms shall run concurrently or consecutively, the defendant shall be credited with time served in imprisonment on the prior sentence in determining the permissible aggregate length of the term or terms remaining to be served;  and

    (c) when a new sentence is imposed on a prisoner who is on parole, the balance of the parole term on the former sentence shall be deemed to run during the period of the new imprisonment.

  (3) Sentence of Imprisonment for Crime Committed While on Parole.  When a defendant is sentenced to imprisonment for a crime committed while on parole in this State, such term of imprisonment and any period of reimprisonment that the Board of Parole may require the defendant to serve upon the revocation of his parole shall run concurrently, unless the Court orders them to run consecutively.

  (4) Multiple Sentences of Imprisonment in Other Cases.  Except as otherwise provided in this Section, multiple terms of imprisonment shall run concurrently or consecutively as the Court determines when the second or subsequent sentence is imposed.

  (5) Calculation of Concurrent and Consecutive Terms of Imprisonment.

    (a) When indefinite terms run concurrently, the shorter minimum terms merge in and are satisfied by serving the longest minimum term and the shorter maximum terms merge in and are satisfied by discharge of the longest maximum term.

    (b) When indefinite terms run consecutively, the minimum terms are added to arrive at an aggregate minimum to be served equal to the sum of all minimum terms and the maximum terms are added to arrive at an aggregate maximum equal to the sum of all maximum terms.

    (c) When a definite and an indefinite term run consecutively, the period of the definite term is added to both the minimum and maximum of the indefinite term and both sentences are satisfied by serving the indefinite term.

  (6) Suspension of Sentence or Probation and Imprisonment;  Multiple Terms of Suspension and Probation.  When a defendant is sentenced for more than one offense or a defendant already under sentence is sentenced for another offense committed prior to the former sentence:

    (a) the Court shall not sentence to probation a defendant who is under sentence of imprisonment [with more than thirty days to run] or impose a sentence of probation and a sentence of imprisonment [, except as authorized by Section 6.02(3)(b) ];  and

    (b) multiple periods of suspension or probation shall run concurrently from the date of the first such disposition;  and

    (c) when a sentence of imprisonment is imposed for an indefinite term, the service of such sentence shall satisfy a suspended sentence on another count or a prior suspended sentence or sentence to probation;  and

    (d) when a sentence of imprisonment is imposed for a definite term, the period of a suspended sentence on another count or a prior suspended sentence or sentence to probation shall run during the period of such imprisonment.

  (7) Offense Committed While Under Suspension of Sentence or Probation.  When a defendant is convicted of an offense committed while under suspension of sentence or on probation and such suspension or probation is not revoked:

    (a) if the defendant is sentenced to imprisonment for an indefinite term, the service of such sentence shall satisfy the prior suspended sentence or sentence to probation;  and

    (b) if the defendant is sentenced to imprisonment for a definite term, the period of the suspension or probation shall not run during the period of such imprisonment;  and

    (c) if sentence is suspended or the defendant is sentenced to probation, the period of such suspension or probation shall run concurrently with or consecutively to the remainder of the prior periods, as the Court determines at the time of sentence.
 
 

Section 7.07. Procedure on Sentence;  Pre-sentence Investigation and Report;  Remand for Psychiatric Examination;  Transmission of Records to Department of Correction.

  (1) The Court shall not impose sentence without first ordering a pre-sentence investigation of the defendant and according due consideration to a written report of such investigation where:

    (a) the defendant has been convicted of a felony;  or

    (b) the defendant is less than twenty-two years of age and has been convicted of a crime;  or

    (c) the defendant will be [placed on probation or] sentenced to imprisonment for an extended term.

  (2) The Court may order a pre-sentence investigation in any other case.

  (3) The pre-sentence investigation shall include an analysis of the circumstances attending the commission of the crime, the defendant's history of delinquency or criminality, physical and mental condition, family situation and background, economic status, education, occupation and personal habits and any other matters that the probation officer deems relevant or the Court directs to be included.

  (4) Before imposing sentence, the Court may order the defendant to submit to psychiatric observation and examination for a period of not exceeding sixty days or such longer period as the Court determines to be necessary for the purpose.  The defendant may be remanded for this purpose to any available clinic or mental hospital or the Court may appoint a qualified psychiatrist to make the examination.  The report of the examination shall be submitted to the Court.

  (5) Before imposing sentence, the Court shall advise the defendant or his counsel of the factual contents and the conclusions of any pre-sentence investigation or psychiatric examination and afford fair opportunity, if the defendant so requests, to controvert them.  The sources of confidential information need not, however, be disclosed.

  (6) The Court shall not impose a sentence of imprisonment for an extended term unless the ground therefor has been established at a hearing after the conviction of the defendant and on written notice to him of the ground proposed.  Subject to the limitation of Subsection (5) of this Section, the defendant shall have the right to hear and controvert the evidence against him and to offer evidence upon the issue.

  (7) If the defendant is sentenced to imprisonment, a copy of the report of any pre-sentence investigation or psychiatric examination shall be transmitted forthwith to the Department of Correction [or other state department or agency] or, when the defendant is committed to the custody of a specific institution, to such institution.
 
 

Section 7.08. Commitment for Observation;  Sentence of Imprisonment for Felony Deemed Tentative for Period of One Year;  Re-sentence on Petition of Commissioner of Correction.

  (1) If, after pre-sentence investigation, the Court desires additional information concerning an offender convicted of a felony or misdemeanor before imposing sentence, it may order that he be committed, for a period not exceeding ninety days, to the custody of the Department of Correction, or, in the case of a young adult offender, to the custody of the Division of Young Adult Correction, for observation and study at an appropriate reception or classification center.  The Department and the Board of Parole, or the Young Adult Divisions thereof, shall advise the Court of their findings and recommendations on or before the expiration of such ninety-day period.  If the offender is thereafter sentenced to imprisonment, the period of such commitment for observation shall be deducted from the maximum term and from the minimum, if any, of such sentence.

  (2) When a person has been sentenced to imprisonment upon conviction of a felony, whether for an ordinary or extended term, the sentence shall be deemed tentative, to the extent provided in this Section, for the period of one year following the date when the offender is received in custody by the Department of Correction [or other state department or agency].

  (3) If, as a result of the examination and classification by the Department of Correction [or other state department or agency] of a person under sentence of imprisonment upon conviction of a felony, the Commissioner of Correction [or other department head] is satisfied that the sentence of the Court may have been based upon a misapprehension as to the history, character or physical or mental condition of the offender, the Commissioner, during the period when the offender's sentence is deemed tentative under Subsection (2) of this Section shall file in the sentencing Court a petition to re-sentence the offender.  The petition shall set forth the information as to the offender that is deemed to warrant his re-sentence and may include a recommendation as to the sentence to be imposed.

  (4) The Court may dismiss a petition filed under Subsection (3) of this Section without a hearing if it deems the information set forth insufficient to warrant reconsideration of the sentence.  If the Court is of the view that the petition warrants such reconsideration, a copy of the petition shall be served on the offender, who shall have the right to be heard on the issue and to be represented by counsel.

  (5) When the Court grants a petition filed under Subsection (3) of this Section, it shall re-sentence the offender and may impose any sentence that might have been imposed originally for the felony of which the defendant was convicted.  The period of his imprisonment prior to re-sentence and any reduction for good behavior to which he is entitled shall be applied in satisfaction of the final sentence.

  (6) For all purposes other than this Section, a sentence of imprisonment has the same finality when it is imposed that it would have if this Section were not in force.

  (7) Nothing in this Section shall alter the remedies provided by law for vacating or correcting an illegal sentence.
 
 

Section 7.09. Credit for Time of Detention Prior to Sentence;  Credit for Imprisonment Under Earlier Sentence for the Same Crime.

  (1) When a defendant who is sentenced to imprisonment has previously been detained in any state or local correctional or other institution following his [conviction of] [arrest for] the crime for which such sentence is imposed, such period of detention following his [conviction] [arrest] shall be deducted from the maximum term, and from the minimum, if any, of such sentence.  The officer having custody of the defendant shall furnish a certificate to the Court at the time of sentence, showing the length of such detention of the defendant prior to sentence in any state or local correctional or other institution, and the certificate shall be annexed to the official records of the defendant's commitment.

  (2) When a judgment of conviction is vacated and a new sentence is thereafter imposed upon the defendant for the same crime, the period of detention and imprisonment theretofore served shall be deducted from the maximum term, and from the minimum, if any, of the new sentence.  The officer having custody of the defendant shall furnish a certificate to the Court at the time of sentence, showing the period of imprisonment served under the original sentence, and the certificate shall be annexed to the official records of the defendant's new commitment.
 

 

PART II.  DEFINITION OF SPECIFIC CRIMES

OFFENSES AGAINST EXISTENCE OR STABILITY OF THE STATE
ARTICLE 200.  OFFENSES AGAINST EXISTENCE OR STABILITY OF THE STATE

    ["This category of offenses, including treason, sedition, espionage and like crimes, was excluded from the scope of the Model Penal Code.  These offenses are peculiarly the concern of the federal government.  The Constitution itself defines treason: "Treason against the United States shall consist of levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving the Aid and Comfort. . . ."  Article III, Section 3; cf. Pennsylvania v. Nelson, 350 U.S. 497 (supersession of state sedition legislation by federal law).  Also, the definition of offenses against the stability of the state is inevitably affected by special political considerations.  These factors militated against the use of the Institute's limited resources to attempt to draft "model" provisions in this area.  However we provide at this point in the Plan of the Model Penal Code for an Article 200, where definitions of offenses against the existence of stability of the state may be incorporated." Model Penal Code (Proposed Official Draft) 123 (1962).]


OFFENSES INVOLVING DANGER TO THE PERSON
ARTICLE 210.  CRIMINAL HOMICIDE

Section 210.0. Definitions.

 In Articles 210-213, unless a different meaning plainly is required:

 (1) "human being" means a person who has been born and is alive;

 (2) "bodily injury" means physical pain, illness or any impairment of physical condition;

 (3) "serious bodily injury" means bodily injury which creates a substantial risk of death or which causes serious, permanent disfigurement, or protracted loss or impairment of the function of any bodily member or organ;

 (4) "deadly weapon" means any firearm, or other weapon, device, instrument, material or substance, whether animate or inanimate, which in the manner it is used or is intended to be used is known to be capable of producing death or serious bodily injury.
 
 

Section 210.1. Criminal Homicide.

 (1) A person is guilty of criminal homicide if he purposely, knowingly, recklessly or negligently causes the death of another human being.

 (2) Criminal homicide is murder, manslaughter or negligent homicide.
 
 

Section 210.2. Murder.

 (1) Except as provided in Section 210.3(1)(b), criminal homicide constitutes murder when:

  (a) it is committed purposely or knowingly; or

  (b) it is committed recklessly under circumstances manifesting extreme indifference to the value of human life.  Such recklessness and indifference are presumed if the actor is engaged or is an accomplice in the commission of, or an attempt to commit, or flight after committing or attempting to commit robbery, rape or deviate sexual intercourse by force or threat of force, arson, burglary, kidnapping or felonious escape.

 (2) Murder is a felony of the first degree [but a person convicted of murder may be sentenced to death, as provided in Section 210.6].
 
 

Section 210.3. Manslaughter.

 (1) Criminal homicide constitutes manslaughter when:

  (a) it is committed recklessly;  or

  (b) a homicide which would otherwise be murder is committed under the influence of extreme mental or emotional disturbance for which there is reasonable explanation or excuse.  The reasonableness of such explanation or excuse shall be determined from the viewpoint of a person in the actor's situation under the circumstances as he believes them to be.

 (2) Manslaughter is a felony of the second degree.
 
 

Section 210.4. Negligent Homicide.

 (1) Criminal homicide constitutes negligent homicide when it is committed negligently.

 (2) Negligent homicide is a felony of the third degree.
 
 

Section 210.5. Causing or Aiding Suicide.

 (1) Causing Suicide as Criminal Homicide.  A person may be convicted of criminal homicide for causing another to commit suicide only if he purposely causes such suicide by force, duress or deception.

 (2) Aiding or Soliciting Suicide as an Independent Offense.  A person who purposely aids or solicits another to commit suicide is guilty of a felony of the second degree if his conduct causes such suicide or an attempted suicide, and otherwise of a misdemeanor.
 
 

[Section 210.6. Sentence of Death for Murder;  Further Proceedings to Determine Sentence].

 (1) Death Sentence Excluded.  When a defendant is found guilty of murder, the Court shall impose sentence for a felony of the first degree if it is satisfied that:

  (a) none of the aggravating circumstances enumerated in Subsection (3) of  this Section was established by the evidence at the trial or will be established if further proceedings are initiated under Subsection (2) of  this Section;  or

  (b) substantial mitigating circumstances, established by the evidence at the trial, call for leniency;  or

  (c) the defendant, with the consent of the prosecuting attorney and the approval of the Court, pleaded guilty to murder as a felony of the first degree;  or

  (d) the defendant was under 18 years of age at the time of the commission of the crime;  or

  (e) the defendant's physical or mental condition calls for leniency;  or

  (f) although the evidence suffices to sustain the verdict, it does not foreclose all doubt respecting the defendant's guilt.

 (2) Determination by Court or by Court and Jury.  Unless the Court imposes sentence under Subsection (1) of this Section, it shall conduct a separate proceeding to determine whether the defendant should be sentenced for a felony of the first degree or sentenced to death.  The proceeding shall be conducted before the Court alone if the defendant was convicted by a Court sitting without a jury or upon his plea of guilty or if the prosecuting attorney and the defendant waive a jury with respect to sentence.  In other cases it shall be conducted before the Court sitting with the jury which determined the defendant's guilt or, if the Court for good cause shown discharges that jury, with a new jury empanelled for the purpose.

 In the proceeding, evidence may be presented as to any matter that the Court deems relevant to sentence, including but not limited to the nature and circumstances of the crime, the defendant's character, background, history, mental and physical condition and any of the aggravating or mitigating circumstances enumerated in Subsections (3) and (4) of this Section.  Any such evidence, not legally privileged, which the Court deems to have probative force, may be received, regardless of its admissibility under the exclusionary rules of evidence, provided that the defendant's counsel is accorded a fair opportunity to rebut such evidence.  The prosecuting attorney and the defendant or his counsel shall be permitted to present argument for or against sentence of death.

 The determination whether sentence of death shall be imposed shall be in the discretion of the Court, except that when the proceeding is conducted before the Court sitting with a jury, the Court shall not impose sentence of death unless it submits to the jury the issue whether the defendant should be sentenced to death or to imprisonment and the jury returns a verdict that the sentence should be death.  If the jury is unable to reach a unanimous verdict, the Court shall dismiss the jury and impose sentence for a felony of the first degree.

 The Court, in exercising its discretion as to sentence, and the jury, in determining upon its verdict, shall take into account the aggravating and mitigating circumstances enumerated in Subsections (3) and (4) and any other facts that it deems relevant, but it shall not impose or recommend sentence of death unless it finds one of the aggravating circumstances enumerated in Subsection (3) and further finds that there are no mitigating circumstances sufficiently substantial to call for leniency.  When the issue is submitted to the jury, the Court shall so instruct and also shall inform the jury of the nature of the sentence of imprisonment that may be imposed, including its implication with respect to possible release upon parole, if the jury verdict is against sentence of death.

 Alternative formulation of Subsection (2):

 (2) Determination by Court.  Unless the Court imposes sentence under Subsection (1) of this Section, it shall conduct a separate proceeding to determine whether the defendant should be sentenced for a felony of the first degree or sentenced to death.  In the proceeding, the Court, in accordance with Section 7.07, shall consider the report of the pre-sentence investigation and, if a psychiatric examination has been ordered, the report of such examination. In addition, evidence may be presented as to any matter that the Court deems relevant to sentence, including but not limited to the nature and circumstances of the crime, the defendant's character, background, history, mental and physical condition and any of the aggravating or mitigating circumstances enumerated in Subsections (3) and (4) of this Section.  Any such evidence, not legally privileged, which the Court deems to have probative force, may be received, regardless of its admissibility under the exclusionary rules of evidence, provided that the defendant's counsel is accorded a fair opportunity to rebut such evidence.  The prosecuting attorney and the defendant or his counsel shall be permitted to present argument for or against sentence of death.

 The determination whether sentence of death shall be imposed shall be in the discretion of the Court.  In exercising such discretion, the Court shall take into account the aggravating and mitigating circumstances enumerated in Subsections (3) and (4) and any other facts that it deems relevant but shall not impose sentence of death unless it finds one of the aggravating circumstances enumerated in Subsection (3) and further finds that there are no mitigating circumstances sufficiently substantial to call for leniency.

 (3) Aggravating Circumstances.

  (a) The murder was committed by a convict under sentence of imprisonment.

  (b) The defendant was previously convicted of another murder or of a felony involving the use or threat of violence to the person.

  (c) At the time the murder was committed the defendant also committed another murder.

  (d) The defendant knowingly created a great risk of death to many persons.

  (e) The murder was committed while the defendant was engaged or was an accomplice in the commission of, or an attempt to commit, or flight after committing or attempting to commit robbery, rape or deviate sexual intercourse by force or threat of force, arson, burglary, or kidnapping.

  (f) The murder was committed for the purpose of avoiding or preventing a lawful arrest or effecting an escape from lawful custody.

  (g) The murder was committed for pecuniary gain.

  (h) The murder was especially heinous, atrocious or cruel, manifesting exceptional depravity.

 (4) Mitigating Circumstances.

  (a) The defendant has no significant history of prior criminal activity.

  (b) The murder was committed while the defendant was under the influence of extreme mental or emotional disturbance.

  (c) The victim was a participant in the defendant's homicidal conduct or consented to the homicidal act.

  (d) The murder was committed under circumstances which the defendant believed to provide a moral justification or extenuation for his conduct.

  (e) The defendant was an accomplice in a murder committed by another person and his participation in the homicidal act was relatively minor.

  (f) The defendant acted under duress or under the domination of another person.

  (g) At the time of the murder, the capacity of the defendant to appreciate the criminality [wrongfulness] of his conduct or to conform his conduct to the requirements of law was impaired as a result of mental disease or defect or intoxication.

  (h) The youth of the defendant at the time of the crime.]
 
 

ARTICLE 211.  ASSAULT;  RECKLESS ENDANGERING;  THREATS  [cf. Restatement Torts 2d §§ 13, 21]

Section 211.0. Definitions.

 In this Article, the definitions given in Section 210.0 apply unless a different meaning plainly is required.
 

Section 211.1. Assault.

 (1) Simple Assault.  A person is guilty of assault if he:

  (a) attempts to cause or purposely, knowingly or recklessly causes bodily injury to another;  or

  (b) negligently causes bodily injury to another with a deadly weapon;  or

  (c) attempts by physical menace to put another in fear of imminent serious bodily injury.

 Simple assault is a misdemeanor unless committed in a fight or scuffle entered into by mutual consent, in which case it is a petty misdemeanor.

 (2) Aggravated Assault.  A person is guilty of aggravated assault if he:

  (a) attempts to cause serious bodily injury to another, or causes such injury purposely, knowingly or recklessly under circumstances manifesting extreme indifference to the value of human life;  or

  (b) attempts to cause or purposely or knowingly causes bodily injury to another with a deadly weapon.

 Aggravated assault under paragraph (a) is a felony of the second degree;  aggravated assault under paragraph (b) is a felony of the third degree.
 
 

Section 211.2. Recklessly Endangering Another Person.

 A person commits a misdemeanor if he recklessly engages in conduct which places or may place another person in danger of death or serious bodily injury.  Recklessness and danger shall be presumed where a person knowingly points a firearm at or in the direction of another, whether or not the actor believed the firearm to be loaded.
 
 

Section 211.3. Terroristic Threats.

 A person is guilty of a felony of the third degree if he threatens to commit any crime of violence with purpose to terrorize another or to cause evacuation of a building, place of assembly, or facility of public transportation, or otherwise to cause serious public inconvenience, or in reckless disregard of the risk of causing such terror or inconvenience.
 
 

ARTICLE 212.  KIDNAPPING AND RELATED OFFENSES;  COERCION

Section 212.0. Definitions.

 In this Article, the definitions given in Section 210.0 apply unless a different meaning plainly is required.
 
 

Section 212.1. Kidnapping.

 A person is guilty of kidnapping if he unlawfully removes another from his place of residence or business, or a substantial distance from the vicinity where he is found, or if he unlawfully confines another for a substantial period in a place of isolation, with any of the following purposes:

  (a) to hold for ransom or reward, or as a shield or hostage;  or

  (b) to facilitate commission of any felony or flight thereafter;  or

  (c) to inflict bodily injury on or to terrorize the victim or another;  or

  (d) to interfere with the performance of any governmental or political function.

 Kidnapping is a felony of the first degree unless the actor voluntarily releases the victim alive and in a safe place prior to trial, in which case it is a felony of the second degree.  A removal or confinement is unlawful within the meaning of this Section if it is accomplished by force, threat or deception, or, in the case of a person who is under the age of 14 or incompetent, if it is accomplished without the consent of a parent, guardian or other person responsible for general supervision of his welfare.
 
 

Section 212.2. Felonious Restraint.

 A person commits a felony of the third degree if he knowingly:

  (a) restrains another unlawfully in circumstances exposing him to risk of serious bodily injury;  or

  (b) holds another in a condition of involuntary servitude.
 
 

Section 212.3. False Imprisonment.  [cf. Restatement Torts 2d § 35]

 A person commits a misdemeanor if he knowingly restrains another unlawfully so as to interfere substantially with his liberty.
 
 

Section 212.4. Interference with Custody.

 (1) Custody of Children.  A person commits an offense if he knowingly or recklessly takes or entices any child under the age of 18 from the custody of its parent, guardian or other lawful custodian, when he has no privilege to do so.  It is an affirmative defense that:

  (a) the actor believed that his action was necessary to preserve the child from danger to its welfare;  or

  (b) the child, being at the time not less than 14 years old, was taken away at its own instigation without enticement and without purpose to commit a criminal offense with or against the child.

 Proof that the child was below the critical age gives rise to a presumption that the actor knew the child's age or acted in reckless disregard thereof.  The offense is a misdemeanor unless the actor, not being a parent or person in equivalent relation to the child, acted with knowledge that his conduct would cause serious alarm for the child's safety, or in reckless disregard of a likelihood of causing such alarm, in which case the offense is a felony of the third degree.

 (2) Custody of Committed Persons.  A person is guilty of a misdemeanor if he knowingly or recklessly takes or entices any committed person away from lawful custody when he is not privileged to do so.  "Committed person" means, in addition to anyone committed under judicial warrant, any orphan, neglected or delinquent child, mentally defective or insane person, or other dependent or incompetent person entrusted to another's custody by or through a recognized social agency or otherwise by authority of law.
 
 

Section 212.5. Criminal Coercion.

 (1) Offense Defined.  A person is guilty of criminal coercion if, with purpose unlawfully to restrict another's freedom of action to his detriment, he threatens to:

  (a) commit any criminal offense;  or

  (b) accuse anyone of a criminal offense;  or

  (c) expose any secret tending to subject any person to hatred, contempt or ridicule, or to impair his credit or business repute;  or

  (d) take or withhold action as an official, or cause an official to take or withhold action.

 It is an affirmative defense to prosecution based on paragraphs (b), (c) or (d) that the actor believed the accusation or secret to be true or the proposed official action justified and that his purpose was limited to compelling the other to behave in a way reasonably related to the circumstances which were the subject of the accusation, exposure or proposed official action, as by desisting from further misbehavior, making good a wrong done, refraining from taking any action or responsibility for which the actor believes the other disqualified.

 (2) Grading.  Criminal coercion is a misdemeanor unless the threat is to commit a felony or the actor's purpose is felonious, in which cases the offense is a felony of the third degree.
 
 

ARTICLE 213.  SEXUAL OFFENSES

Section 213.0. Definitions.

 In this Article, unless a different meaning plainly is required:

  (1) the definitions given in Section 210.0 apply;

  (2) "Sexual intercourse" includes intercourse per os or per anus, with some penetration however slight;  emission is not required;

  (3) "Deviate sexual intercourse" means sexual intercourse per os or per anus between human beings who are not husband and wife, and any form of sexual intercourse with an animal.
 
 

Section 213.1. Rape and Related Offenses.

 (1) Rape.  A male who has sexual intercourse with a female not his wife is guilty of rape if:

  (a) he compels her to submit by force or by threat of imminent death, serious bodily injury, extreme pain or kidnapping, to be inflicted on anyone;  or

  (b) he has substantially impaired her power to appraise or control her conduct by administering or employing without her knowledge drugs, intoxicants or other means for the purpose of preventing resistance;  or

  (c) the female is unconscious;  or

  (d) the female is less than 10 years old.

 Rape is a felony of the second degree unless (i) in the course thereof the actor inflicts serious bodily injury upon anyone, or (ii) the victim was not a voluntary social companion of the actor upon the occasion of the crime and had not previously permitted him sexual liberties, in which cases the offense is a felony of the first degree.

 (2) Gross Sexual Imposition.  A male who has sexual intercourse with a female not his wife commits a felony of the third degree if:

  (a) he compels her to submit by any threat that would prevent resistance by a woman of ordinary resolution;  or

  (b) he knows that she suffers from a mental disease or defect which renders her incapable of appraising the nature of her conduct;  or

  (c) he knows that she is unaware that a sexual act is being committed upon her or that she submits because she mistakenly supposes that he is her husband.
 
 

Section 213.2. Deviate Sexual Intercourse by Force or Imposition.

 (1) By Force or Its Equivalent.  A person who engages in deviate sexual intercourse with another person, or who causes another to engage in deviate sexual intercourse, commits a felony of the second degree if:

  (a) he compels the other person to participate by force or by threat of imminent death, serious bodily injury, extreme pain or kidnapping, to be inflicted on anyone;  or

  (b) he has substantially impaired the other person's power to appraise or control his conduct, by administering or employing without the knowledge of the other person drugs, intoxicants or other means for the purpose of preventing resistance;  or

  (c) the other person is unconscious;  or

  (d) the other person is less than 10 years old.

 (2) By Other Imposition.  A person who engages in deviate sexual intercourse with another person, or who causes another to engage in deviate sexual intercourse, commits a felony of the third degree if:

  (a) he compels the other person to participate by any threat that would prevent resistance by a person of ordinary resolution;  or

  (b) he knows that the other person suffers from a mental disease or defect which renders him incapable of appraising the nature of his conduct;  or

  (c) he knows that the other person submits because he is unaware that a sexual act is being committed upon him.
 
 

Section 213.3. Corruption of Minors and Seduction.

 (1) Offense Defined.  A male who has sexual intercourse with a female not his wife, or any person who engages in deviate sexual intercourse or causes another to engage in deviate sexual intercourse, is guilty of an offense if:

  (a) the other person is less than [16] years old and the actor is at least [4] years older than the other person;  or

  (b) the other person is less than 21 years old and the actor is his guardian or otherwise responsible for general supervision of his welfare;  or

  (c) the other person is in custody of law or detained in a hospital or other institution and the actor has supervisory or disciplinary authority over him; or

  (d) the other person is a female who is induced to participate by a promise of marriage which the actor does not mean to perform.

 (2) Grading.  An offense under paragraph (a) of Subsection (1) is a felony of the third degree.  Otherwise an offense under this section is a misdemeanor.
 
 

Section 213.4. Sexual Assault.

 A person who has sexual contact with another not his spouse, or causes such other to have sexual contact with him, is guilty of sexual assault, a misdemeanor, if:

  (1) he knows that the contact is offensive to the other person;  or

  (2) he knows that the other person suffers from a mental disease or defect which renders him or her incapable of appraising the nature of his or her conduct;  or

  (3) he knows that the other person is unaware that a sexual act is being committed;  or

  (4) the other person is less than 10 years old;  or

  (5) he has substantially impaired the other person's power to appraise or control his or her conduct, by administering or employing without the other's knowledge drugs, intoxicants or other means for the purpose of  preventing resistance;  or

  (6) the other person is less than [16] years old and the actor is at least [4] years older than the other person;  or

  (7) the other person is less than 21 years old and the actor is his guardian or otherwise responsible for general supervision of his welfare;  or

  (8) the other person is in custody of law or detained in a hospital or other institution and the actor has supervisory or disciplinary authority over him.

 Sexual contact is any touching of the sexual or other intimate parts of the person for the purpose of arousing or gratifying sexual desire.
 
 

Section 213.5. Indecent Exposure.

 A person commits a misdemeanor if, for the purpose of arousing or gratifying sexual desire of himself or of any person other than his spouse, he exposes his genitals under circumstances in which he knows his conduct is likely to cause affront or alarm.
 
 

Section 213.6. Provisions Generally Applicable to Article 213.

 (1) Mistake as to Age.  Whenever in this Article the criminality of conduct depends on a child's being below the age of 10, it is no defense that the actor did not know the child's age, or reasonably believed the child to be older than 10.  When criminality depends on the child's being below a critical age other than 10, it is a defense for the actor to prove by a preponderance of the evidence that he reasonably believed the child to be above the critical age.

 (2) Spouse Relationships.  Whenever in this Article the definition of an offense excludes conduct with a spouse, the exclusion shall be deemed to extend to persons living as man and wife, regardless of the legal status of their relationship.  The exclusion shall be inoperative as respects spouses living apart under a decree of judicial separation.  Where the definition of an offense excludes conduct with a spouse or conduct by a woman, this shall not preclude conviction of a spouse or woman as accomplice in a sexual act which he or she causes another person, not within the exclusion, to perform.

 (3) Sexually Promiscuous Complainants.  It is a defense to prosecution under Section 213.3 and paragraphs (6), (7) and (8) of Section 213.4 for the actor to prove by a preponderance of the evidence that the alleged victim had, prior to the time of the offense charged, engaged promiscuously in sexual relations with others.

 (4) Prompt Complaint.  No prosecution may be instituted or maintained under this Article unless the alleged offense was brought to the notice of public authority within [3] months of its occurrence or, where the alleged victim was less than [16] years old or otherwise incompetent to make complaint, within [3] months after a parent, guardian or other competent person specially interested in the victim learns of the offense.

 (5) Testimony of Complainants.  No person shall be convicted of any felony under this Article upon the uncorroborated testimony of the alleged victim. Corroboration may be circumstantial.  In any prosecution before a jury for an offense under this Article, the jury shall be instructed to evaluate the testimony of a victim or complaining witness with special care in view of the emotional involvement of the witness and the difficulty of determining the truth with respect to alleged sexual activities carried out in private.

OFFENSES AGAINST PROPERTY
ARTICLE 220.  ARSON, CRIMINAL MISCHIEF, AND OTHER PROPERTY DESTRUCTION

Section 220.1. Arson and Related Offenses.

 (1) Arson.  A person is guilty of arson, a felony of the second degree, if he starts a fire or causes an explosion with the purpose of:

  (a) destroying a building or occupied structure of another;  or

  (b) destroying or damaging any property, whether his own or another's, to collect insurance for such loss.  It shall be an affirmative defense to prosecution under this paragraph that the actor's conduct did not recklessly endanger any building or occupied structure of another or place any other person in danger of death or bodily injury.

 (2) Reckless Burning or Exploding.  A person commits a felony of the third degree if he purposely starts a fire or causes an explosion, whether on his own property or another's, and thereby recklessly:

  (a) places another person in danger of death or bodily injury;  or

  (b) places a building or occupied structure of another in danger of damage or destruction.

 (3) Failure to Control or Report Dangerous Fire.  A person who knows that a fire is endangering life or a substantial amount of property of another and fails to take reasonable measures to put out or control the fire, when he can do so without substantial risk to himself, or to give a prompt fire alarm, commits a misdemeanor if:

  (a) he knows that he is under an official, contractual, or other legal duty to prevent or combat the fire;  or

  (b) the fire was started, albeit lawfully, by him or with his assent, or on property in his custody or control.

 (4) Definitions.  "Occupied structure" means any structure, vehicle or place adapted for overnight accommodation of persons, or for carrying on business therein, whether or not a person is actually present.  Property is that of another, for the purposes of this section, if anyone other than the actor has a possessory or proprietory interest therein.  If a building or structure is divided into separately occupied units, any unit not occupied by the actor is an occupied structure of another.
 
 

Section 220.2. Causing or Risking Catastrophe.

 (1) Causing Catastrophe.  A person who causes a catastrophe by explosion, fire, flood, avalanche, collapse of building, release of poison gas, radioactive material or other harmful or destructive force or substance, or by any other means of causing potentially widespread injury or damage, commits a felony of the second degree if he does so purposely or knowingly, or a felony of the third degree if he does so recklessly.

 (2) Risking Catastrophe.  A person is guilty of a misdemeanor if he recklessly creates a risk of catastrophe in the employment of fire, explosives or other dangerous means listed in Subsection (1).

 (3) Failure to Prevent Catastrophe.  A person who knowingly or recklessly fails to take reasonable measures to prevent or mitigate a catastrophe commits a misdemeanor if:

  (a) he knows that he is under an official, contractual or other legal duty to take such measures;  or

  (b) he did or assented to the act causing or threatening the catastrophe.
 
 

Section 220.3. Criminal Mischief.

 (1) Offense Defined.  A person is guilty of criminal mischief if he:

  (a) damages tangible property of another purposely, recklessly, or by negligence in the employment of fire, explosives, or other dangerous means listed in Section 220.2(1);  or

  (b) purposely or recklessly tampers with tangible property of another so as to endanger person or property;  or

  (c) purposely or recklessly causes another to suffer pecuniary loss by deception or threat.

 (2) Grading.  Criminal mischief is a felony of the third degree if the actor purposely causes pecuniary loss in excess of $5,000, or a substantial interruption or impairment of public communication, transportation, supply of water, gas or power, or other public service.  It is a misdemeanor if the actor purposely causes pecuniary loss in excess of $100, or a petty misdemeanor if he purposely or recklessly causes pecuniary loss in excess of $25.  Otherwise criminal mischief is a violation.
 
 

ARTICLE 221.  BURGLARY AND OTHER CRIMINAL INTRUSION

Section 221.0. Definitions.

 In this Article, unless a different meaning plainly is required:

 (1) "occupied structure" means any structure, vehicle or place adapted for overnight accommodation of persons, or for carrying on business therein, whether or not a person is actually present.

 (2) "night" means the period between thirty minutes past sunset and thirty minutes before sunrise.
 
 

Section 221.1. Burglary.

 (1) Burglary Defined.  A person is guilty of burglary if he enters a building or occupied structure, or separately secured or occupied portion thereof, with purpose to commit a crime therein, unless the premises are at the time open to the public or the actor is licensed or privileged to enter.  It is an affirmative defense to prosecution for burglary that the building or structure was abandoned.

 (2) Grading.  Burglary is a felony of the second degree if it is perpetrated in the dwelling of another at night, or if, in the course of committing the offense, the actor:

  (a) purposely, knowingly or recklessly inflicts or attempts to inflict bodily injury on anyone;  or

  (b) is armed with explosives or a deadly weapon.

 Otherwise, burglary is a felony of the third degree.  An act shall be deemed "in the course of committing" an offense if it occurs in an attempt to commit the offense or in flight after the attempt or commission.

 (3) Multiple Convictions.  A person may not be convicted both for burglary and for the offense which it was his purpose to commit after the burglarious entry or for an attempt to commit that offense, unless the additional offense constitutes a felony of the first or second degree.
 
 

Section 221.2. Criminal Trespass.  [cf. Restatement Torts 2d § 158]

 (1) Buildings and Occupied Structures.  A person commits an offense if, knowing that he is not licensed or privileged to do so, he enters or surreptitiously remains in any building or occupied structure, or separately secured or occupied portion thereof.  An offense under this Subsection is a misdemeanor if it is committed in a dwelling at night.  Otherwise it is a petty misdemeanor.

 (2) Defiant Trespasser.  A person commits an offense if, knowing that he is not licensed or privileged to do so, he enters or remains in any place as to which notice against trespass is given by:

  (a) actual communication to the actor;  or

  (b) posting in a manner prescribed by law or reasonably likely to come to the attention of intruders;  or

  (c) fencing or other enclosure manifestly designed to exclude intruders.

 An offense under this Subsection constitutes a petty misdemeanor if the offender defies an order to leave personally communicated to him by the owner of the premises or other authorized person.  Otherwise it is a violation.

 (3) Defenses.  It is an affirmative defense to prosecution under this Section that:

  (a) a building or occupied structure involved in an offense under Subsection (1) was abandoned;  or

  (b) the premises were at the time open to members of the public and the actor complied with all lawful conditions imposed on access to or remaining in the premises;  or

  (c) the actor reasonably believed that the owner of the premises, or other person empowered to license access thereto, would have licensed him to enter or remain.
 
 

ARTICLE 222.  ROBBERY  [cf. Restatement Torts 2d ch. 9, § 217]

Section 222.1. Robbery.

 (1) Robbery Defined.  A person is guilty of robbery if, in the course of committing a theft, he:

  (a) inflicts serious bodily injury upon another;  or

  (b) threatens another with or purposely puts him in fear of immediate serious bodily injury;  or

  (c) commits or threatens immediately to commit any felony of the first or second degree.

 An act shall be deemed "in the course of committing a theft" if it occurs in an attempt to commit theft or in flight after the attempt or commission.

 (2) Grading.  Robbery is a felony of the second degree, except that it is a felony of the first degree if in the course of committing the theft the actor attempts to kill anyone, or purposely inflicts or attempts to inflict serious bodily injury.
 
 

ARTICLE 223.  THEFT AND RELATED OFFENSES  [cf. Restatement Torts 2d ch. 9, § 217]

Section 223.0. Definitions.

 In this Article, unless a different meaning plainly is required:

 (1) "deprive" means:  (a) to withhold property of another permanently or for so extended a period as to appropriate a major portion of its economic value, or with intent to restore only upon payment of reward or other compensation; or (b) to dispose of the property so as to make it unlikely that the owner will recover it.

 (2) "financial institution" means a bank, insurance company, credit union, building and loan association, investment trust or other organization held out to the public as a place of deposit of funds or medium of savings or collective investment.

 (3) "government" means the United States, any State, county, municipality, or other political unit, or any department, agency or subdivision of any of the foregoing, or any corporation or other association carrying out the functions of government.

 (4) "movable property" means property the location of which can be changed, including things growing on, affixed to, or found in land, and documents although the rights represented thereby have no physical location.  "Immovable property" is all other property.

 (5) "obtain" means:  (a) in relation to property, to bring about a transfer or purported transfer of a legal interest in the property, whether to the obtainer or another;  or (b) in relation to labor or service, to secure performance thereof.

 (6) "property" means anything of value, including real estate, tangible and intangible personal property, contract rights, choses-in-action and other interests in or claims to wealth, admission or transportation tickets, captured or domestic animals, food and drink, electric or other power.

 (7) "property of another" includes property in which any person other than the actor has an interest which the actor is not privileged to infringe, regardless of the fact that the actor also has an interest in the property and regardless of the fact that the other person might be precluded from civil recovery because the property was used in an unlawful transaction or was subject to forfeiture as contraband.  Property in possession of the actor shall not be deemed property of another who has only a security interest therein, even if legal title is in the creditor pursuant to a conditional sales contract or other security agreement.
 
 

Section 223.1. Consolidation of Theft Offenses;  Grading;  Provisions Applicable to Theft Generally.

 (1) Consolidation of Theft Offenses.  Conduct denominated theft in this Article constitutes a single offense.  An accusation of theft may be supported by evidence that it was committed in any manner that would be theft under this Article, notwithstanding the specification of a different manner in the indictment or information, subject only to the power of the Court to ensure fair trial by granting a continuance or other appropriate relief where the conduct of the defense would be prejudiced by lack of fair notice or by surprise.

 (2) Grading of Theft Offenses.

  (a) Theft constitutes a felony of the third degree if the amount involved exceeds $500, or if the property stolen is a firearm, automobile, airplane, motorcycle, motor boat, or other motor-propelled vehicle, or in the case of theft by receiving stolen property, if the receiver is in the business of buying or selling stolen property.

  (b) Theft not within the preceding paragraph constitutes a misdemeanor, except that if the property was not taken from the person or by threat, or in breach of a fiduciary obligation, and the actor proves by a preponderance of the evidence that the amount involved was less than $50, the offense constitutes a petty misdemeanor.

  (c) The amount involved in a theft shall be deemed to be the highest  value, by any reasonable standard, of the property or services which the actor stole or attempted to steal.  Amounts involved in thefts committed pursuant to one scheme or course of conduct, whether from the same person or several persons, may be aggregated in determining the grade of the offense.

 (3) Claim of Right.  It is an affirmative defense to prosecution for theft that the actor:

  (a) was unaware that the property or service was that of another;  or

  (b) acted under an honest claim of right to the property or service involved or that he had a right to acquire or dispose of it as he did;  or

  (c) took property exposed for sale, intending to purchase and pay for it promptly, or reasonably believing that the owner, if present, would have consented.

 (4) Theft from Spouse.  It is no defense that theft was from the actor's spouse, except that misappropriation of household and personal effects, or other property normally accessible to both spouses, is theft only if it occurs after the parties have ceased living together.
 
 

Section 223.2. Theft by Unlawful Taking or Disposition.

 (1) Movable Property.  A person is guilty of theft if he unlawfully takes, or exercises unlawful control over, movable property of another with purpose to deprive him thereof.

 (2) Immovable Property.  A person is guilty of theft if he unlawfully transfers immovable property of another or any interest therein with purpose to benefit himself or another not entitled thereto.
 
 

Section 223.3. Theft by Deception.

 A person is guilty of theft if he purposely obtains property of another by deception.  A person deceives if he purposely:

 (1) creates or reinforces a false impression, including false impressions as to law, value, intention or other state of mind;  but deception as to a person's intention to perform a promise shall not be inferred from the fact alone that he did not subsequently perform the promise;  or

 (2) prevents another from acquiring information which would affect his judgment of a transaction;  or

 (3) fails to correct a false impression which the deceiver previously created or reinforced, or which the deceiver knows to be influencing another to whom he stands in a fiduciary or confidential relationship;  or

 (4) fails to disclose a known lien, adverse claim or other legal impediment to the enjoyment of property which he transfers or encumbers in consideration for the property obtained, whether such impediment is or is not valid, or is or is not a matter of official record.

 The term "deceive" does not, however, include falsity as to matters having no pecuniary significance, or puffing by statements unlikely to deceive ordinary persons in the group addressed.
 
 

Section 223.4. Theft by Extortion.

 A person is guilty of theft if he purposely obtains property of another by threatening to:

 (1) inflict bodily injury on anyone or commit any other criminal offense;  or

 (2) accuse anyone of a criminal offense;  or

 (3) expose any secret tending to subject any person to hatred, contempt or ridicule, or to impair his credit or business repute;  or

 (4) take or withhold action as an official, or cause an official to take or withhold action;  or

 (5) bring about or continue a strike, boycott or other collective unofficial action, if the property is not demanded or received for the benefit of the group in whose interest the actor purports to act;  or

 (6) testify or provide information or withhold testimony or information with respect to another's legal claim or defense;  or

 (7) inflict any other harm which would not benefit the actor.

 It is an affirmative defense to prosecution based on paragraphs (2), (3) or (4) that the property obtained by threat of accusation, exposure, lawsuit or other invocation of official action was honestly claimed as restitution or indemnification for harm done in the circumstances to which such accusation, exposure, lawsuit or other official action relates, or as compensation for property or lawful services.
 
 

Section 223.5. Theft of Property Lost, Mislaid, or Delivered by Mistake.

 A person who comes into control of property of another that he knows to have been lost, mislaid, or delivered under a mistake as to the nature or amount of the property or the identity of the recipient is guilty of theft if, with purpose to deprive the owner thereof, he fails to take reasonable measures to restore the property to a person entitled to have it.
 
 

Section 223.6. Receiving Stolen Property.

 (1) Receiving.  A person is guilty of theft if he purposely receives, retains, or disposes of movable property of another knowing that it has been stolen, or believing that it has probably been stolen, unless the property is received, retained, or disposed with purpose to restore it to the owner.  "Receiving" means acquiring possession, control or title, or lending on the security of the property.

 (2) Presumption of Knowledge.  The requisite knowledge or belief is presumed in the case of a dealer who:

  (a) is found in possession or control of property stolen from two or more persons on separate occasions;  or

  (b) has received stolen property in another transaction within the year preceding the transaction charged;  or

  (c) being a dealer in property of the sort received, acquires it for a consideration which he knows is far below its reasonable value.

 "Dealer" means a person in the business of buying or selling goods including a pawnbroker.
 
 

Section 223.7. Theft of Services.

 (1) A person is guilty of theft is he purposely obtains services which he knows are available only for compensation, by deception or threat, or by false token or other means to avoid payment for the service.  "Services" includes labor, professional service, transportation, telephone or other public service, accommodation in hotels, restaurants or elsewhere, admission to exhibitions, use of vehicles or other movable property.  Where compensation for service is ordinarily paid immediately upon the rendering of such service, as in the case of hotels and restaurants, refusal to pay or absconding without payment or offer to pay gives rise to a presumption that the service was obtained by deception as to intention to pay.

 (2) A person commits theft if, having control over the disposition of services of others, to which he is not entitled, he knowingly diverts such services to his own benefit or to the benefit of another not entitled thereto.
 
 

Section 223.8. Theft by Failure to Make Required Disposition of Funds Received.

 A person who purposely obtains property upon agreement, or subject to a known legal obligation, to make specified payment or other disposition, whether from such property or its proceeds or from his own property to be reserved in equivalent amount, is guilty of theft if he deals with the property obtained as his own and fails to make the required payment or disposition.  The foregoing applies notwithstanding that it may be impossible to identify particular property as belonging to the victim at the time of the actor's failure to make the required payment or disposition.  An officer or employee of the government or of a financial institution is presumed:  (i) to know any legal obligation relevant to his criminal liability under this Section, and (ii) to have dealt with the property as his own if he fails to pay or account upon lawful demand, or if an audit reveals a shortage or falsification of accounts.
 
 

Section 223.9. Unauthorized Use of Automobiles and Other Vehicles.

 A person commits a misdemeanor if he operates another's automobile, airplane, motorcycle, motorboat, or other motor-propelled vehicle without consent of the owner.  It is an affirmative defense to prosecution under this Section that the actor reasonably believed that the owner would have consented to the operation had he known of it.
 
 

ARTICLE 224.  FORGERY AND FRAUDULENT PRACTICES[cf. Restatement Torts 2d ch. 9, § 217]

Section 224.0. Definitions.

 In this Article, the definitions given in Section 223.0 apply unless a different meaning plainly is required.
 
 

Section 224.1. Forgery.

 (1) Definition.  A person is guilty of forgery if, with purpose to defraud or injure anyone, or with knowledge that he is facilitating a fraud or injury to be perpetrated by anyone, the actor:

  (a) alters any writing of another without his authority;  or

  (b) makes, completes, executes, authenticates, issues or transfers any writing so that it purports to be the act of another who did not authorize that act, or to have been executed at a time or place or in a numbered sequence other than was in fact the case, or to be a copy of an original when no such original existed;  or

  (c) utters any writing which he knows to be forged in a manner specified in paragraphs (a) or (b).

 "Writing" includes printing or any other method of recording information, money, coins, tokens, stamps, seals, credit cards, badges, trade-marks, and other symbols of value, right, privilege, or identification.

 (2) Grading.  Forgery is a felony of the second degree if the writing is or purports to be part of an issue of money, securities, postage or revenue stamps, or other instruments issued by the government, or part of an issue of stock, bonds or other instruments representing interests in or claims against any property or enterprise.  Forgery is a felony of the third degree if the writing is or purports to be a will, deed, contract, release, commercial instrument, or other document evidencing, creating, transferring, altering, terminating, or otherwise affecting legal relations.  Otherwise forgery is a misdemeanor.
 
 

Section 224.2. Simulating Objects of Antiquity, Rarity, Etc.

 A person commits a misdemeanor if, with purpose to defraud anyone or with knowledge that he is facilitating a fraud to be perpetrated by anyone, he makes, alters or utters any object so that it appears to have value because of antiquity, rarity, source, or authorship which it does not possess.
 
 

Section 224.3. Fraudulent Destruction, Removal or Concealment of Recordable Instruments.

 A person commits a felony of the third degree if, with purpose to deceive or injure anyone, he destroys, removes or conceals any will, deed, mortgage, security instrument or other writing for which the law provides public recording.
 
 

Section 224.4. Tampering with Records.

 A person commits a misdemeanor if, knowing that he has no privilege to do so, he falsifies, destroys, removes or conceals any writing or record, with purpose to deceive or injure anyone or to conceal any wrongdoing.
 
 

Section 224.5. Bad Checks.

 A person who issues or passes a check or similar sight order for the payment of money, knowing that it will not be honored by the drawee, commits a misdemeanor.  For the purposes of this Section as well as in any prosecution for theft committed by means of a bad check, an issuer is presumed to know that the check or order (other than a postdated check or order) would not be paid, if:

 (1) the issuer had no account with the drawee at the time the check or order was issued;  or

 (2) payment was refused by the drawee for lack of funds, upon presentation within 30 days after issue, and the issuer failed to make good within 10 days after receiving notice of that refusal.
 
 

Section 224.6. Credit Cards.

 A person commits an offense if he uses a credit card for the purpose of obtaining property or services with knowledge that:

 (1) the card is stolen or forged;  or

 (2) the card has been revoked or cancelled;  or

 (3) for any other reason his use of the card is unauthorized by the issuer.

 It is an affirmative defense to prosecution under paragraph (3) if the actor proves by a preponderance of the evidence that he had the purpose and ability to meet all obligations to the issuer arising out of his use of the card. "Credit card" means a writing or other evidence of an undertaking to pay for property or services delivered or rendered to or upon the order of a designated person or bearer.  An offense under this Section is a felony of the third degree if the value of the property or services secured or sought to be secured by means of the credit card exceeds $500;  otherwise it is a misdemeanor.
 
 

Section 224.7. Deceptive Business Practices.

 A person commits a misdemeanor if in the course of business he:

 (1) uses or possesses for use a false weight or measure, or any other device for falsely determining or recording any quality or quantity;  or

 (2) sells, offers or exposes for sale, or delivers less than the represented quantity of any commodity or service;  or

 (3) takes or attempts to take more than the represented quantity of any commodity or service when as buyer he furnishes the weight or measure;  or

 (4) sells, offers or exposes for sale adulterated or mislabeled commodities. "Adulterated" means varying from the standard of composition or quality prescribed by or pursuant to any statute providing criminal penalties for such variance, or set by established commercial usage.  "Mislabeled" means varying from the standard of truth or disclosure in labeling prescribed by or pursuant to any statute providing criminal penalties for such variance, or set by established commercial usage;  or

 (5) makes a false or misleading statement in any advertisement addressed to the public or to a substantial segment thereof for the purpose of promoting the purchase or sale of property or services;  or

 (6) makes a false or misleading written statement for the purpose of obtaining property or credit;  or

 (7) makes a false or misleading written statement for the purpose of promoting the sale of securities, or omits information required by law to be disclosed in written documents relating to securities.

 It is an affirmative defense to prosecution under this Section if the defendant proves by a preponderance of the evidence that his conduct was not knowingly or recklessly deceptive.
 
 

Section 224.8. Commercial Bribery and Breach of Duty to Act Disinterestedly.

 (1) A person commits a misdemeanor if he solicits, accepts or agrees to accept any benefit as consideration for knowingly violating or agreeing to violate a duty of fidelity to which he is subject as:

  (a) partner, agent or employee of another;

  (b) trustee, guardian, or other fiduciary;

  (c) lawyer, physician, accountant, appraiser, or other professional  adviser or informant;

  (d) officer, director, manager or other participant in the direction of the affairs of an incorporated or unincorporated association;  or

  (e) arbitrator or other purportedly disinterested adjudicator or referee.

 (2) A person who holds himself out to the public as being engaged in the business of making disinterested selection, appraisal, or criticism of commodities or services commits a misdemeanor if he solicits, accepts or agrees to accept any benefit to influence his selection, appraisal or criticism.

 (3) A person commits a misdemeanor if he confers, or offers or agrees to confer, any benefit the acceptance of which would be criminal under this Section.
 
 

Section 224.9. Rigging Publicly Exhibited Contest.

 (1) A person commits a misdemeanor if, with purpose to prevent a publicly exhibited contest from being conducted in accordance with the rules and usages purporting to govern it, he:

  (a) confers or offers or agrees to confer any benefit upon, or threatens any injury to a participant, official or other person associated with the contest or exhibition;  or

  (b) tampers with any person, animal or thing.

 (2) Soliciting or Accepting Benefit for Rigging.  A person commits a misdemeanor if he knowingly solicits, accepts or agrees to accept any benefit the giving of which would be criminal under Subsection (1).

 (3) Participation in Rigged Contest.  A person commits a misdemeanor if he knowingly engages in, sponsors, produces, judges, or otherwise participates in a publicly exhibited contest knowing that the contest is not being conducted in compliance with the rules and usages purporting to govern it, by reason of conduct which would be criminal under this Section.
 
 

Section 224.10. Defrauding Secured Creditors.

 A person commits a misdemeanor if he destroys, removes, conceals, encumbers, transfers or otherwise deals with property subject to a security interest with purpose to hinder enforcement of that interest.
 
 

Section 224.11. Fraud in Insolvency.

 A person commits a misdemeanor if, knowing that proceedings have been or are about to be instituted for the appointment of a receiver or other person entitled to administer property for the benefit of creditors, or that any other composition or liquidation for the benefit of creditors has been or is about to made, he:

  (a) destroys, removes, conceals, encumbers, transfers, or otherwise deals with any property with purpose to defeat or obstruct the claim of any creditor, or otherwise to obstruct the operation of any law relating to administration of property for the benefit of creditors;  or

  (b) knowingly falsifies any writing or record relating to the property;  or

  (c) knowingly misrepresents or refuses to disclose to a receiver or other person entitled to administer property for the benefit of creditors, the existence, amount or location of the property, or any other information which the actor could be legally required to furnish in relation to such administration.
 
 

Section 224.12. Receiving Deposits in a Failing Financial Institution.

 An officer, manager or other person directing or participating in the direction of a financial institution commits a misdemeanor if he receives or permits the receipt of a deposit, premium payment or other investment in the institution knowing that:

 (1) due to financial difficulties the institution is about to suspend operations or go into receivership or reorganization;  and

 (2) the person making the deposit or other payment is unaware of the precarious situation of the institution.
 
 

Section 224.13.  Misapplication of Entrusted Property and Property of Government or Financial Institution.

 A person commits an offense if he applies or disposes of property that has been entrusted to him as a fiduciary, or property of the government or of a financial institution, in a manner which he knows is unlawful and involves substantial risk of loss or detriment to the owner of the property or to a person for whose benefit the property was entrusted.  The offense is a misdemeanor if the amount involved exceeds $50;  otherwise it is a petty misdemeanor.  "Fiduciary" includes trustee, guardian, executor, administrator, receiver and any person carrying on fiduciary functions on behalf of a corporation or other organization which is a fiduciary.
 
 

Section 224.14. Securing Execution of Documents by Deception.

 A person commits a misdemeanor if by deception he causes another to execute any instrument affecting or purporting to affect or likely to affect the pecuniary interest of any person.
 
 

OFFENSES AGAINST THE FAMILY
ARTICLE 230.  OFFENSES AGAINST THE FAMILY

Section 230.1. Bigamy and Polygamy.

 (1) Bigamy.  A married person is guilty of bigamy, a misdemeanor, if he contracts or purports to contract another marriage, unless at the time of the subsequent marriage:

  (a) the actor believes that the prior spouse is dead;  or

  (b) the actor and the prior spouse have been living apart for five consecutive years throughout which the prior spouse was not known by the actor to be alive;  or

  (c) a Court has entered a judgment purporting to terminate or annul any prior disqualifying marriage, and the actor does not know that judgment to be invalid;  or

  (d) the actor reasonably believes that he is legally eligible to remarry.

 (2) Polygamy.  A person is guilty of polygamy, a felony of the third degree, if he marries or cohabits with more than one spouse at a time in purported exercise of the right of plural marriage.  The offense is a continuing one until all cohabitation and claim of marriage with more than one spouse terminates.  This section does not apply to parties to a polygamous marriage, lawful in the country of which they are residents or nationals, while they are in transit through or temporarily visiting this State.

 (3) Other Party to Bigamous or Polygamous Marriage.  A person is guilty of bigamy or polygamy, as the case may be, if he contracts or purports to contract marriage with another knowing that the other is thereby committing bigamy or polygamy.
 
 

Section 230.2. Incest.

 A person is guilty of incest, a felony of the third degree, if he knowingly marries or cohabits or has sexual intercourse with an ancestor or descendant, a brother or sister of the whole or half blood [or an uncle, aunt, nephew or niece of the whole blood].  "Cohabit" means to live together under the representation or appearance of being married.  The relationships referred to herein include blood relationships without regard to legitimacy, and relationship of parent and child by adoption.
 
 

Section 230.3. Abortion.

 (1) Unjustified Abortion.  A person who purposely and unjustifiably terminates the pregnancy of another otherwise than by a live birth commits a felony of the third degree or, where the pregnancy has continued beyond the twenty-sixth week, a felony of the second degree.

 (2) Justifiable Abortion.  A licensed physician is justified in terminating a pregnancy if he believes there is substantial risk that continuance of the pregnancy would gravely impair the physical or mental health of the mother or that the child would be born with grave physical or mental defect, or that the pregnancy resulted from rape, incest, or other felonious intercourse.  All illicit intercourse with a girl below the age of 16 shall be deemed felonious for purposes of this subsection.  Justifiable abortions shall be performed only in a licensed hospital except in case of emergency when hospital facilities are unavailable.  [Additional exceptions from the requirement of hospitalization may be incorporated here to take account of situations in sparsely settled areas where hospitals are not generally accessible.]

 (3) Physicians' Certificates;  Presumption from Non-Compliance.  No abortion shall be performed unless two physicians, one of whom may be the person performing the abortion, shall have certified in writing the circumstances which they believe to justify the abortion.  Such certificate shall be submitted before the abortion to the hospital where it is to be performed and, in the case of abortion following felonious intercourse, to the prosecuting attorney or the police.  Failure to comply with any of the requirements of this Subsection gives rise to a presumption that the abortion was unjustified.

 (4) Self-Abortion.  A woman whose pregnancy has continued beyond the twenty-sixth week commits a felony of the third degree if she purposely terminates her own pregnancy otherwise than by a live birth, or if she uses instruments, drugs or violence upon herself for that purpose.  Except as justified under Subsection (2), a person who induces or knowingly aids a woman to use instruments, drugs or violence upon herself for the purpose of terminating her pregnancy otherwise than by a live birth commits a felony of the third degree whether or not the pregnancy has continued beyond the twenty-sixth week.

 (5) Pretended Abortion.  A person commits a felony of the third degree if, representing that it is his purpose to perform an abortion, he does an act adapted to cause abortion in a pregnant woman although the woman is in fact not pregnant, or the actor does not believe she is.  A person charged with unjustified abortion under Subsection (1) or an attempt to commit that offense may be convicted thereof upon proof of conduct prohibited by this Subsection.

 (6) Distribution of Abortifacients.  A person who sells, offers to sell, possesses with intent to sell, advertises, or displays for sale anything specially designed to terminate a pregnancy, or held out by the actor as useful for that purpose, commits a misdemeanor, unless:

  (a) the sale, offer or display is to a physician or druggist or to an intermediary in a chain of distribution to physicians or druggists;  or

  (b) the sale is made upon prescription or order of a physician;  or

  (c) the possession is with intent to sell as authorized in paragraphs (a) and (b);  or

  (d) the advertising is addressed to persons named in paragraph (a) and confined to trade or professional channels not likely to reach the general public.

 (7) Section Inapplicable to Prevention of Pregnancy.  Nothing in this Section shall be deemed applicable to the prescription, administration or distribution of drugs or other substances for avoiding pregnancy, whether by preventing implantation of a fertilized ovum or by any other method that operates before, at or immediately after fertilization.
 
 

Section 230.4. Endangering Welfare of Children.

 A parent, guardian, or other person supervising the welfare of a child under 18 commits a misdemeanor if he knowingly endangers the child's welfare by violating a duty of care, protection or support.
 
 

Section 230.5. Persistent Non-Support.

 A person commits a misdemeanor if he persistently fails to provide support which he can provide and which he knows he is legally obliged to provide to a spouse, child or other dependent.
 
 

OFFENSES AGAINST PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
ARTICLE 240.  BRIBERY AND CORRUPT INFLUENCE

Section 240.0. Definitions.

 In Articles 240-243, unless a different meaning plainly is required:

 (1) "benefit" means gain or advantage, or anything regarded by the beneficiary as gain or advantage, including benefit to any other person or entity in whose welfare he is interested, but not an advantage promised generally to a group or class of voters as a consequence of public measures which a candidate engages to support or oppose;

 (2) "government" includes any branch, subdivision or agency of the government of the State or any locality within it;

 (3) "harm" means loss, disadvantage or injury, or anything so regarded by the person affected, including loss, disadvantage or injury to any other person or entity in whose welfare he is interested;

 (4) "official proceeding" means a proceeding heard or which may be heard before any legislative, judicial, administrative or other governmental agency or official authorized to take evidence under oath, including any referee, hearing examiner, commissioner, notary or other person taking testimony or deposition in connection with any such proceeding;

 (5) "party official" means a person who holds an elective or appointive post in a political party in the United States by virtue of which he directs or conducts, or participates in directing or conducting party affairs at any level of responsibility;

 (6) "pecuniary benefit" is benefit in the form of money, property, commercial interests or anything else the primary significance of which is economic gain;

 (7) "public servant" means any officer or employee of government, including legislators and judges, and any person participating as juror, advisor, consultant or otherwise, in performing a governmental function;  but the term does not include witnesses;

 (8) "administrative proceeding" means any proceeding, other than a judicial proceeding, the outcome of which is required to be based on a record or documentation prescribed by law, or in which law or regulation is particularized in application to individuals.
 
 

Section 240.1. Bribery in Official and Political Matters.

 A person is guilty of bribery, a felony of the third degree, if he offers, confers or agrees to confer upon another, or solicits, accepts or agrees to accept from another:

 (1) any pecuniary benefit as consideration for the recipient's decision, opinion, recommendation, vote or other exercise of discretion as a public servant, party official or voter;  or

 (2) any benefit as consideration for the recipient's decision, vote, recommendation or other exercise of official discretion in a judicial or administrative proceeding;  or

 (3) any benefit as consideration for a violation of a known legal duty as public servant or party official.

 It is no defense to prosecution under this section that a person whom the actor sought to influence was not qualified to act in the desired way whether because he had not yet assumed office, or lacked jurisdiction, or for any other reason.
 
 

Section 240.2. Threats and Other Improper Influence in Official and Political Matters.

 (1) Offenses Defined.  A person commits an offense if he:

  (a) threatens unlawful harm to any person with purpose to influence his decision, opinion, recommendation, vote or other exercise of discretion as a public servant, party official or voter;  or

  (b) threatens harm to any public servant with purpose to influence his decision, opinion, recommendation, vote or other exercise of discretion in a judicial or administrative proceeding;  or

  (c) threatens harm to any public servant or party official with purpose to influence him to violate his known legal duty;  or

  (d) privately addresses to any public servant who has or will have an official discretion in a judicial or administrative proceeding any representation, entreaty, argument or other communication with purpose to influence the outcome on the basis of considerations other than those authorized by law.

 It is no defense to prosecution under this Section that a person whom the actor sought to influence was not qualified to act in the desired way, whether because he had not yet assumed office, or lacked jurisdiction, or for any other reason.

 (2) Grading.  An offense under this Section is a misdemeanor unless the actor threatened to commit a crime or made a threat with purpose to influence a judicial or administrative proceeding, in which cases the offense is a felony of the third degree.
 
 

Section 240.3. Compensation for Past Official Action.

 A person commits a misdemeanor if he solicits, accepts or agrees to accept any pecuniary benefit as compensation for having, as public servant, given a decision, opinion, recommendation or vote favorable to another, or for having otherwise exercised a discretion in his favor, or for having violated his duty.  A person commits a misdemeanor if he offers, confers or agrees to confer compensation acceptance of which is prohibited by this Section.
 
 

Section 240.4. Retaliation for Past Official Action.

 A person commits a misdemeanor if he harms another by any unlawful act in retaliation for anything lawfully done by the latter in the capacity of public servant.
 
 

Section 240.5.  Gifts to Public Servants by Persons Subject to Their Jurisdiction.

 (1) Regulatory and Law Enforcement Officials.  No public servant in any department or agency exercising regulatory functions, or conducting inspections or investigations, or carrying on civil or criminal litigation on behalf of the government, or having custody of prisoners, shall solicit, accept or agree to accept any pecuniary benefit from a person known to be subject to such regulation, inspection, investigation or custody, or against whom such litigation is known to be pending or contemplated.

 (2) Officials Concerned with Government Contracts and Pecuniary Transactions.  No public servant having any discretionary function to perform in connection with contracts, purchases, payments, claims or other pecuniary transactions of the government shall solicit, accept or agree to accept any pecuniary benefit from any person known to be interested in or likely to become interested in any such contract, purchase, payment, claim or transaction.

 (3) Judicial and Administrative Officials.  No public servant having judicial or administrative authority and no public servant employed by or in a court or other tribunal having such authority, or participating in the enforcement of its decisions, shall solicit, accept or agree to accept any pecuniary benefit from a person known to be interested in or likely to become interested in any matter before such public servant or a tribunal with which he is associated.

 (4) Legislative Officials.  No legislator or public servant employed by the legislature or by any committee or agency thereof shall solicit, accept or agree to accept any pecuniary benefit from any person known to be interested in a bill, transaction or proceeding, pending or contemplated, before the legislature or any committee or agency thereof.

 (5) Exceptions.  This Section shall not apply to:

  (a) fees prescribed by law to be received by a public servant, or any other benefit for which the recipient gives legitimate consideration or to which he is otherwise legally entitled;  or

  (b) gifts or other benefits conferred on account of kinship or other personal, professional or business relationship independent of the official status of the receiver;  or

  (c) trivial benefits incidental to personal, professional or business contacts and involving no substantial risk of undermining official impartiality.

 (6) Offering Benefits Prohibited.  No person shall knowingly confer, or offer or agree to confer, any benefit prohibited by the foregoing Subsections.

 (7) Grade of Offense.  An offense under this Section is a misdemeanor.
 
 

Section 240.6.  Compensating Public Servant for Assisting Private Interests in Relation to Matters Before Him.

 (1) Receiving Compensation.  A public servant commits a misdemeanor if he solicits, accepts or agrees to accept compensation for advice or other assistance in preparing or promoting a bill, contract, claim, or other transaction or proposal as to which he knows that he has or is likely to have an official discretion to exercise.

 (2) Paying Compensation.  A person commits a misdemeanor if he pays or offers or agrees to pay compensation to a public servant with knowledge that acceptance by the public servant is unlawful.
 
 

Section 240.7. Selling Political Endorsement;  Special Influence.

 (1) Selling Political Endorsement.  A person commits a misdemeanor if he solicits, receives, agrees to receive, or agrees that any political party or other person shall receive, any pecuniary benefit as consideration for approval or disapproval of an appointment or advancement in public service, or for approval or disapproval of any person or transaction for any benefit conferred by an official or agency of government.  "Approval" includes recommendation, failure to disapprove, or any other manifestation of favor or acquiescence.  "Disapproval" includes failure to approve, or any other manifestation of disfavor or nonacquiescence.

 (2) Other Trading in Special Influence.  A person commits a misdemeanor if he solicits, receives or agrees to receive any pecuniary benefit as consideration for exerting special influence upon a public servant or procuring another to do so.  "Special influence" means power to influence through kinship, friendship or other relationship, apart from the merits of the transaction.

 (3) Paying for Endorsement or Special Influence.  A person commits a misdemeanor if he offers, confers or agrees to confer any pecuniary benefit receipt of which is prohibited by this Section.
 
 

ARTICLE 241.  PERJURY AND OTHER FALSIFICATION IN OFFICIAL MATTERS

Section 241.0. Definitions.

 In this Article, unless a different meaning plainly is required:

 (1) the definitions given in Section 240.0 apply;  and

 (2) "statement" means any representation, but includes a representation of opinion, belief or other state of mind only if the representation clearly relates to state of mind apart from or in addition to any facts which are the subject of the representation.
 
 

Section 241.1. Perjury.

 (1) Offense Defined.  A person is guilty of perjury, a felony of the third degree, if in any official proceeding he makes a false statement under oath or equivalent affirmation, or swears or affirms the truth of a statement previously made, when the statement is material and he does not believe it to be true.

 (2) Materiality.  Falsification is material, regardless of the admissibility of the statement under rules of evidence, if it could have affected the course or outcome of the proceeding.  It is no defense that the declarant mistakenly believed the falsification to be immaterial.  Whether a falsification is material in a given factual situation is a question of law.

 (3) Irregularities No Defense.  It is not a defense to prosecution under this Section that the oath or affirmation was administered or taken in an irregular manner or that the declarant was not competent to make the statement.  A document purporting to be made upon oath or affirmation at any time when the actor presents it as being so verified shall be deemed to have been duly sworn or affirmed.

 (4) Retraction.  No person shall be guilty of an offense under this Section if he retracted the falsification in the course of the proceeding in which it was made before it became manifest that the falsification was or would be exposed and before the falsification substantially affected the proceeding.

 (5) Inconsistent Statements.  Where the defendant made inconsistent statements under oath or equivalent affirmation, both having been made within the period of the statute of limitations, the prosecution may proceed by setting forth the inconsistent statements in a single count alleging in the alternative that one or the other was false and not believed by the defendant.  In such case it shall not be necessary for the prosecution to prove which statement was false but only that one or the other was false and not believed by the defendant to be true.

 (6) Corroboration.  No person shall be convicted of an offense under this Section where proof of falsity rests solely upon contradiction by testimony of a single person other than the defendant.
 
 

Section 241.2. False Swearing.

 (1) False Swearing in Official Matters.  A person who makes a false statement under oath or equivalent affirmation, or swears or affirms the truth of such a statement previously made, when he does not believe the statement to be true, is guilty of a misdemeanor if:

  (a) the falsification occurs in an official proceeding;  or

  (b) the falsification is intended to mislead a public servant in performing his official function.

 (2) Other False Swearing.  A person who makes a false statement under oath or equivalent affirmation, or swears or affirms the truth of such a statement previously made, when he does not believe the statement to be true, is guilty of a petty misdemeanor, if the statement is one which is required by law to be sworn or affirmed before a notary or other person authorized to administer oaths.

 (3) Perjury Provisions ApplicableSubsections (3) to (6) of Section 241.1 apply to the present Section.
 
 

Section 241.3. Unsworn Falsification to Authorities.

 (1) In General.  A person commits a misdemeanor if, with purpose to mislead a public servant in performing his official function, he:

  (a) makes any written false statement which he does not believe to be true;  or

  (b) purposely creates a false impression in a written application for any pecuniary or other benefit, by omitting information necessary to prevent statements therein from being misleading;  or

  (c) submits or invites reliance on any writing which he knows to be forged, altered or otherwise lacking in authenticity;  or

  (d) submits or invites reliance on any sample, specimen, map, boundary-mark, or other object which he knows to be false.

 (2) Statements "Under Penalty."  A person commits a petty misdemeanor if he makes a written false statement which he does not believe to be true, on or pursuant to a form bearing notice, authorized by law, to the effect that false statements made therein are punishable.

 (3) Perjury Provisions ApplicableSubsections (3) to (6) of Section 241.1 apply to the present section.
 
 

Section 241.4. False Alarms to Agencies of Public Safety.

 A person who knowingly causes a false alarm of fire or other emergency to be transmitted to or within any organization, official or volunteer, for dealing with emergencies involving danger to life or property commits a misdemeanor.
 
 

Section 241.5. False Reports to Law Enforcement Authorities.

 (1) Falsely Incriminating Another.  A person who knowingly gives false information to any law enforcement officer with purpose to implicate another commits a misdemeanor.

 (2) Fictitious Reports.  A person commits a petty misdemeanor if he:

  (a) reports to law enforcement authorities an offense or other incident within their concern knowing that it did not occur;  or

  (b) pretends to furnish such authorities with information relating to an offense or incident when he knows he has no information relating to such offense or incident.
 
 

Section 241.6.  Tampering With Witnesses and Informants;  Retaliation Against Them.

 (1) Tampering.  A person commits an offense if, believing that an official proceeding or investigation is pending or about to be instituted, he attempts to induce or otherwise cause a witness or informant to:

  (a) testify or inform falsely;  or

  (b) withhold any testimony, information, document or thing;  or

  (c) elude legal process summoning him to testify or supply evidence;  or

  (d) absent himself from any proceeding or investigation to which he has been legally summoned.

 The offense is a felony of the third degree if the actor employs force, deception, threat or offer of pecuniary benefit.  Otherwise it is a misdemeanor.

 (2) Retaliation Against Witness or Informant.  A person commits a misdemeanor if he harms another by any unlawful act in retaliation for anything lawfully done in the capacity of witness or informant.

 (3) Witness or Informant Taking Bribe.  A person commits a felony of the third degree if he solicits, accepts or agrees to accept any benefit in consideration of his doing any of the things specified in clauses (a) to (d) of Subsection (1).
 
 

Section 241.7. Tampering with or Fabricating Physical Evidence.

 A person commits a misdemeanor if, believing that an official proceeding or investigation is pending or about to be instituted, he:

 (1) alters, destroys, conceals or removes any record, document or thing with purpose to impair its verity or availability in such proceeding or investigation;  or

 (2) makes, presents or uses any record, document or thing knowing it to be false and with purpose to mislead a public servant who is or may be engaged in such proceeding or investigation.
 
 

Section 241.8. Tampering With Public Records or Information.

 (1) Offense Defined.  A person commits an offense if he:

  (a) knowingly makes a false entry in, or false alteration of, any record, document or thing belonging to, or received or kept by, the government for information or record, or required by law to be kept by others for information of the government;  or

  (b) makes, presents or uses any record, document or thing knowing it to be false, and with purpose that it be taken as a genuine part of information or records referred to in paragraph (a);  or

  (c) purposely and unlawfully destroys, conceals, removes or otherwise impairs the verity or availability of any such record, document or thing.

 (2) Grading.  An offense under this Section is a misdemeanor unless the actor's purpose is to defraud or injure anyone, in which case the offense is a felony of the third degree.
 
 

Section 241.9. Impersonating a Public Servant.

 A person commits a misdemeanor if he falsely pretends to hold a position in the public service with purpose to induce another to submit to such pretended official authority or otherwise to act in reliance upon that pretense to his prejudice.
 
 

ARTICLE 242.  OBSTRUCTING GOVERNMENTAL OPERATIONS;  ESCAPES

Section 242.0. Definitions.

 In this Article, unless another meaning plainly is required, the definitions given in Section 240.0 apply.
 
 

Section 242.1.  Obstructing Administration of Law or Other Governmental Function.

 A person commits a misdemeanor if he purposely obstructs, impairs or perverts the administration of law or other governmental function by force, violence, physical interference or obstacle, breach of official duty, or any other unlawful act, except that this Section does not apply to flight by a person charged with crime, refusal to submit to arrest, failure to perform a legal duty other than an official duty, or any other means of avoiding compliance with law without affirmative interference with governmental functions.
 
 

Section 242.2. Resisting Arrest or Other Law Enforcement.

 A person commits a misdemeanor if, for the purpose of preventing a public servant from effecting a lawful arrest or discharging any other duty, the person creates a substantial risk of bodily injury to the public servant or anyone else, or employs means justifying or requiring substantial force to overcome the resistance.
 
 

Section 242.3. Hindering Apprehension or Prosecution.

 A person commits an offense if, with purpose to hinder the apprehension, prosecution, conviction or punishment of another for crime, he:

 (1) harbors or conceals the other;  or

 (2) provides or aids in providing a weapon, transportation, disguise or other means of avoiding apprehension or effecting escape;  or

 (3) conceals or destroys evidence of the crime, or tampers with a witness, informant, document or other source of information, regardless of its admissibility in evidence;  or

 (4) warns the other of impending discovery or apprehension, except that this paragraph does not apply to a warning given in connection with an effort to bring another into compliance with law;  or

 (5) volunteers false information to a law enforcement officer.

 The offense is a felony of the third degree if the conduct which the actor knows has been charged or is liable to be charged against the person aided would constitute a felony of the first or second degree.  Otherwise it is a misdemeanor.
 
 

Section 242.4. Aiding Consummation of Crime.

 A person commits an offense if he purposely aids another to accomplish an unlawful object of a crime, as by safeguarding the proceeds thereof or converting the proceeds into negotiable funds.  The offense is a felony of the third degree if the principal offense was a felony of the first or second degree.  Otherwise it is a misdemeanor.
 
 

Section 242.5. Compounding.

 A person commits a misdemeanor if he accepts or agrees to accept any pecuniary benefit in consideration of refraining from reporting to law enforcement authorities the commission or suspected commission of any offense or information relating to an offense.  It is an affirmative defense to prosecution under this Section that the pecuniary benefit did not exceed an amount which the actor believed to be due as restitution or indemnification for harm caused by the offense.
 
 

Section 242.6. Escape.

 (1) Escape.  A person commits an offense if he unlawfully removes himself from official detention or fails to return to official detention following temporary leave granted for a specific purpose or limited period.  "Official detention" means arrest, detention in any facility for custody of persons under charge or conviction of crime or alleged or found to be delinquent, detention for extradition or deportation, or any other detention for law enforcement purposes;  but "official detention" does not include supervision of probation or parole, or constraint incidental to release on bail.

 (2) Permitting or Facilitating Escape.  A public servant concerned in detention commits an offense if he knowingly or recklessly permits an escape.  Any person who knowingly causes or facilitates an escape commits an offense.

 (3) Effect of Legal Irregularity in Detention.  Irregularity in bringing about or maintaining detention, or lack of jurisdiction of the committing or detaining authority, shall not be a defense to prosecution under this Section if the escape is from a prison or other custodial facility or from detention pursuant to commitment by official proceedings.  In the case of other detentions, irregularity or lack of jurisdiction shall be a defense only if:

  (a) the escape involved no substantial risk of harm to the person or  property of anyone other than the detainee;  or

  (b) the detaining authority did not act in good faith under color of law.

 (4) Grading of Offenses.  An offense under this Section is a felony of the third degree where:

  (a) the actor was under arrest for or detained on a charge of felony or following conviction of crime;  or

  (b) the actor employs force, threat, deadly weapon or other dangerous instrumentality to effect the escape;  or

  (c) a public servant concerned in detention of persons convicted of crime purposely facilitates or permits an escape from a detention facility.

 Otherwise an offense under this section is a misdemeanor.
 
 

Section 242.7. Implements for Escape;  Other Contraband.

 (1) Escape Implements.  A person commits a misdemeanor if he unlawfully introduces within a detention facility, or unlawfully provides an inmate with, any weapon, tool or other thing which may be useful for escape.  An inmate commits a misdemeanor if he unlawfully procures, makes, or otherwise provides himself with, or has in his possession, any such implement of escape. "Unlawfully" means surreptitiously or contrary to law, regulation or order of the detaining authority.

 (2) Other Contraband.  A person commits a petty misdemeanor if he provides an inmate with anything which the actor knows it is unlawful for the inmate to possess.
 
 

Section 242.8. Bail Jumping;  Default in Required Appearance.

 A person set at liberty by court order, with or without bail, upon condition that he will subsequently appear at a specified time and place, commits a misdemeanor if, without lawful excuse, he fails to appear at that time and place.  The offense constitutes a felony of the third degree where the required appearance was to answer to a charge of felony, or for disposition of any such charge, and the actor took flight or went into hiding to avoid apprehension, trial or punishment.  This Section does not apply to obligations to appear incident to release under suspended sentence or on probation or parole.
 
 

ARTICLE 243.  ABUSE OF OFFICE

Section 243.0. Definitions.

 In this Article, unless a different meaning plainly is required, the definitions given in Section 240.0 apply.
 
 

Section 243.1. Official Oppression.

 A person acting or purporting to act in an official capacity or taking advantage of such actual or purported capacity commits a misdemeanor if, knowing that his conduct is illegal, he:

  (a) subjects another to arrest, detention, search, seizure, mistreatment, dispossession, assessment, lien or other infringement of personal or property rights;  or

  (b) denies or impedes another in the exercise or enjoyment of any right, privilege, power or immunity.
 
 

Section 243.2. Speculating or Wagering on Official Action or Information.

 A public servant commits a misdemeanor if, in contemplation of official action by himself or by a governmental unit with which he is associated, or in reliance on information to which he has access in his official capacity and which has not been made public, he:

 (1) acquires a pecuniary interest in any property, transaction or enterprise which may be affected by such information or official action;  or

 (2) speculates or wagers on the basis of such information or official action;  or

 (3) aids another to do any of the foregoing.
 
 

OFFENSES AGAINST PUBLIC ORDER AND DECENCY
ARTICLE 250.  RIOT, DISORDERLY CONDUCT, AND RELATED OFFENSES

Section 250.1. Riot;  Failure to Disperse.

 (1) Riot.  A person is guilty of riot, a felony of the third degree, if he participates with [two] or more others in a course of disorderly conduct:

  (a) with purpose to commit or facilitate the commission of a felony or misdemeanor;

  (b) with purpose to prevent or coerce official action;  or

  (c) when the actor or any other participant to the knowledge of the actor uses or plans to use a firearm or other deadly weapon.

 (2) Failure of Disorderly Persons to Disperse Upon Official Order.  Where [three] or more persons are participating in a course of disorderly conduct likely to cause substantial harm or serious inconvenience, annoyance or alarm, a peace officer or other public servant engaged in executing or enforcing the law may order the participants and others in the immediate vicinity to disperse.  A person who refuses or knowingly fails to obey such an order commits a misdemeanor.
 
 

Section 250.2. Disorderly Conduct.

 (1) Offense Defined.  A person is guilty of disorderly conduct if, with purpose to cause public inconvenience, annoyance or alarm, or recklessly creating a risk thereof, he:

  (a) engages in fighting or threatening, or in violent or tumultuous behavior;  or

  (b) makes unreasonable noise or offensively coarse utterance, gesture or display, or addresses abusive language to any person present;  or

  (c) creates a hazardous or physically offensive condition by any act which serves no legitimate purpose of the actor.

"Public" means affecting or likely to affect persons in a place to which the public or a substantial group has access;  among the places included are highways, transport facilities, schools, prisons, apartment houses, places of business or amusement, or any neighborhood.

 (2) Grading.  An offense under this section is a petty misdemeanor if the actor's purpose is to cause substantial harm or serious inconvenience, or if he persists in disorderly conduct after reasonable warning or request to desist. Otherwise disorderly conduct is a violation.
 
 

Section 250.3. False Public Alarms.

 A person is guilty of a misdemeanor if he initiates or circulates a report or warning of an impending bombing or other crime or catastrophe, knowing that the report or warning is false or baseless and that it is likely to cause evacuation of a building, place of assembly, or facility of public transport, or to cause public inconvenience or alarm.
 
 

Section 250.4. Harassment.

 A person commits a petty misdemeanor if, with purpose to harass another, he:

 (1) makes a telephone call without purpose of legitimate communication;  or

 (2) insults, taunts or challenges another in a manner likely to provoke violent or disorderly response;  or

 (3) makes repeated communications anonymously or at extremely inconvenient hours, or in offensively coarse language;  or

 (4) subjects another to an offensive touching;  or

 (5) engages in any other course of alarming conduct serving no legitimate purpose of the actor.
 
 

Section 250.5. Public Drunkenness;  Drug Incapacitation.

 A person is guilty of an offense if he appears in any public place manifestly under the influence of alcohol, narcotics or other drug, not therapeutically administered, to the degree that he may endanger himself or other persons or property, or annoy persons in his vicinity.  An offense under this Section constitutes a petty misdemeanor if the actor has been convicted hereunder twice before within a period of one year.  Otherwise the offense constitutes a violation.
 
 

Section 250.6. Loitering or Prowling.

 A person commits a violation if he loiters or prowls in a place, at a time, or in a manner not usual for law-abiding individuals under circumstances that warrant alarm for the safety of persons or property in the vicinity.  Among the circumstances which may be considered in determining whether such alarm is warranted is the fact that the actor takes flight upon appearance of a peace officer, refuses to identify himself, or manifestly endeavors to conceal himself or any object.  Unless flight by the actor or other circumstance makes it impracticable, a peace officer shall prior to any arrest for an offense under this section afford the actor an opportunity to dispel any alarm which would otherwise be warranted, by requesting him to identify himself and explain his presence and conduct.  No person shall be convicted of an offense under this Section if the peace officer did not comply with the preceding sentence, or if it appears at trial that the explanation given by the actor was true and, if believed by the peace officer at the time, would have dispelled the alarm.
 
 

Section 250.7. Obstructing Highways and Other Public Passages.

 (1) A person, who, having no legal privilege to do so, purposely or recklessly obstructs any highway or other public passage, whether alone or with others, commits a violation, or, in case he persists after warning by a law officer, a petty misdemeanor.  "Obstructs" means renders impassable without unreasonable inconvenience or hazard.  No person shall be deemed guilty of recklessly obstructing in violation of this Subsection solely because of a gathering of persons to hear him speak or otherwise communicate, or solely because of being a member of such a gathering.

 (2) A person in a gathering commits a violation if he refuses to obey a reasonable official request or order to move:

  (a) to prevent obstruction of a highway or other public passage;  or

  (b) to maintain public safety by dispersing those gathered in dangerous proximity to a fire or other hazard.

An order to move, addressed to a person whose speech or other lawful behavior attracts an obstructing audience, shall not be deemed reasonable if the obstruction can be readily remedied by police control of the size or location of the gathering.
 
 

Section 250.8. Disrupting Meetings and Processions.

 A person commits a misdemeanor if, with purpose to prevent or disrupt a lawful meeting, procession or gathering, he does any act tending to obstruct or interfere with it physically, or makes any utterance, gesture or display designed to outrage the sensibilities of the group.
 
 

Section 250.9. Desecration of Venerated Objects.

 A person commits a misdemeanor if he purposely desecrates any public monument or structure, or place of worship or burial, or if he purposely desecrates the national flag or any other object of veneration by the public or a substantial segment thereof in any public place.  "Desecrate" means defacing, damaging, polluting or otherwise physically mistreating in a way that the actor knows will outrage the sensibilities of persons likely to observe or discover his action.
 
 

Section 250.10. Abuse of Corpse.

 Except as authorized by law, a person who treats a corpse in a way that he knows would outrage ordinary family sensibilities commits a misdemeanor.
 
 

Section 250.11. Cruelty to Animals.

 A person commits a misdemeanor if he purposely or recklessly:

 (1) subjects any animal to cruel mistreatment;  or

 (2) subjects any animal in his custody to cruel neglect;  or

 (3) kills or injures any animal belonging to another without legal privilege or consent of the owner.

Subsections (1) and (2) shall not be deemed applicable to accepted veterinary practices and activities carried on for scientific research.
 
 

Section 250.12. Violation of Privacy.

 (1) Unlawful Eavesdropping or Surveillance.  A person commits a misdemeanor if, except as authorized by law, he:

  (a) trespasses on property with purpose to subject anyone to eavesdropping or other surveillance in a private place;  or

  (b) installs in any private place, without the consent of the person or persons entitled to privacy there, any device for observing, photographing, recording, amplifying or broadcasting sounds or events in such place, or uses any such unauthorized installation;  or

  (c) installs or uses outside a private place any device for hearing, recording, amplifying or broadcasting sounds originating in such place which would not ordinarily be audible or comprehensible outside, without the consent of the person or persons entitled to privacy there.

"Private place" means a place where one may reasonably expect to be safe from casual or hostile intrusion or surveillance, but does not include a place to which the public or a substantial group thereof has access.

 (2) Other Breach of Privacy of Messages.  A person commits a misdemeanor if, except as authorized by law, he:

  (a) intercepts without the consent of the sender or receiver a message by telephone, telegraph, letter or other means of communicating privately;  but this paragraph does not extend to (i) overhearing of messages through a regularly installed instrument on a telephone party line or on an extension, or (ii) interception by the telephone company or subscriber incident to  enforcement of regulations limiting use of the facilities or incident to other normal operation and use;  or

  (b) divulges without the consent of the sender or receiver the existence or contents of any such message if the actor knows that the message was illegally intercepted, or if he learned of the message in the course of employment with an agency engaged in transmitting it.
 
 

ARTICLE 251.  PUBLIC INDECENCY

Section 251.1. Open Lewdness.

 A person commits a petty misdemeanor if he does any lewd act which he knows is likely to be observed by others who would be affronted or alarmed.
 
 

Section 251.2. Prostitution and Related Offenses.

 (1) Prostitution.  A person is guilty of prostitution, a petty misdemeanor, if he or she:

  (a) is an inmate of a house of prostitution or otherwise engages in sexual activity as a business;  or

  (b) loiters in or within view of any public place for the purpose of being hired to engage in sexual activity.

"Sexual activity" includes homosexual and other deviate sexual relations.  A "house of prostitution" is any place where prostitution or promotion of prostitution is regularly carried on by one person under the control, management or supervision of another.  An "inmate" is a person who engages in prostitution in or through the agency of a house of prostitution.  "Public place" means any place to which the public or any substantial group thereof has access.

 (2) Promoting Prostitution.  A person who knowingly promotes prostitution of another commits a misdemeanor or felony as provided in Subsection (3).  The following acts shall, without limitation of the foregoing, constitute promoting prostitution:

  (a) owning, controlling, managing, supervising or otherwise keeping, alone or in association with others, a house of prostitution or a prostitution business;  or

  (b) procuring an inmate for a house of prostitution or a place in a house of prostitution for one who would be an inmate;  or

  (c) encouraging, inducing, or otherwise purposely causing another to become or remain a prostitute;  or

  (d) soliciting a person to patronize a prostitute;  or

  (e) procuring a prostitute for a patron;  or

  (f) transporting a person into or within this state with purpose to promote that person's engaging in prostitution, or procuring or paying for transportation with that purpose;  or

  (g) leasing or otherwise permitting a place controlled by the actor, alone or in association with others, to be regularly used for prostitution or the promotion of prostitution, or failure to make reasonable effort to abate such use by ejecting the tenant, notifying law enforcement authorities, or other legally available means;  or

  (h) soliciting, receiving, or agreeing to receive any benefit for doing or agreeing to do anything forbidden by this Subsection.

 (3) Grading of Offenses Under Subsection (2).  An offense under Subsection (2) constitutes a felony of the third degree if:

  (a) the offense falls within paragraph (a), (b) or (c) of Subsection (2);  or

  (b) the actor compels another to engage in or promote prostitution;  or

  (c) the actor promotes prostitution of a child under 16, whether or not he is aware of the child's age;  or

  (d) the actor promotes prostitution of his wife, child, ward or any person for whose care, protection or support he is responsible.

Otherwise the offense is a misdemeanor.

 (4) Presumption from Living off Prostitutes.  A person, other than the prostitute or the prostitute's minor child or other legal dependent incapable of self-support, who is supported in whole or substantial part by the proceeds of prostitution is presumed to be knowingly promoting prostitution in violation of Subsection (2).

 (5) Patronizing Prostitutes.  A person commits a violation if he hires a prostitute to engage in sexual activity with him, or if he enters or remains in a house of prostitution for the purpose of engaging in sexual activity.

 (6) Evidence.  On the issue whether a place is a house of prostitution the following shall be admissible evidence:  its general repute;  the repute of the persons who reside in or frequent the place;  the frequency, timing and duration of visits by non-residents.  Testimony of a person against his spouse shall be admissible to prove offenses under this Section.
 
 

Section 251.3. Loitering to Solicit Deviate Sexual Relations.

 A person is guilty of a petty misdemeanor if he loiters in or near any public place for the purpose of soliciting or being solicited to engage in deviate sexual relations.
 
 

Section 251.4. Obscenity.

 (1) Obscene Defined.  Material is obscene if, considered as a whole, its predominant appeal is to prurient interest, that is, a shameful or morbid interest, in nudity, sex or excretion, and if in addition it goes substantially beyond customary limits of candor in describing or representing such matters.  Predominant appeal shall be judged with reference to ordinary adults unless it appears from the character of the material or the circumstances of its dissemination to be designed for children or other specially susceptible audience.  Undeveloped photographs, molds, printing plates, and the like, shall be deemed obscene notwithstanding that processing or other acts may be required to make the obscenity patent or to disseminate it.

 (2) Offenses.  Subject to the affirmative defense provided in Subsection (3), a person commits a misdemeanor if he knowingly or recklessly:

  (a) sells, delivers or provides, or offers or agrees to sell, deliver or provide, any obscene writing, picture, record or other representation or embodiment of the obscene;  or

  (b) presents or directs an obscene play, dance or performance, or participates in that portion thereof which makes it obscene;  or

  (c) publishes, exhibits or otherwise makes available any obscene material;  or

  (d) possesses any obscene material for purposes of sale or other commercial dissemination;  or

  (e) sells, advertises or otherwise commercially disseminates material, whether or not obscene, by representing or suggesting that it is obscene.

A person who disseminates or possesses obscene material in the course of his business is presumed to do so knowingly or recklessly.

 (3) Justifiable and Non-Commercial Private Dissemination.  It is an affirmative defense to prosecution under this Section that dissemination was restricted to:

  (a) institutions or persons having scientific, educational, governmental or other similar justification for possessing obscene material;  or

  (b) non-commercial dissemination to personal associates of the actor.

 (4) Evidence;  Adjudication of Obscenity.  In any prosecution under this Section evidence shall be admissible to show:

  (a) the character of the audience for which the material was designed or to which it was directed;

  (b) what the predominant appeal of the material would be for ordinary adults or any special audience to which it was directed, and what effect, if any, it would probably have on conduct of such people;

  (c) artistic, literary, scientific, educational or other merits of the material;

  (d) the degree of public acceptance of the material in the United States;

  (e) appeal to prurient interest, or absence thereof, in advertising or other promotion of the material;  and

  (f) the good repute of the author, creator, publisher or other person from whom the material originated.

Expert testimony and testimony of the author, creator, publisher or other person from whom the material originated, relating to factors entering into the determination of the issue of obscenity, shall be admissible.  The Court shall dismiss a prosecution for obscenity if it is satisfied that the material is not obscene.
 

ADDITIONAL ARTICLES

    ["At this point, a State enacting a new Penal Code may insert additional Articles dealing with special topics such as narcotics, alcoholic beverages, gambling and offenses against tax and trade laws.  The Model Penal Code project did not extend to these, partly because a higher priority on limited time and resources was accorded to branches of the penal law which have not received close legislative scrutiny.  Also, in legislation dealing with narcotics, liquor, tax evasion, and the like, penal provisions have been so intermingled with regulatory and procedural provisions that the task of segregating one group from the other presents special difficulty for model legislation." [Model Penal Code (Proposed Official Draft) 241 (1962).]





[1] MPC ALI, annotations & links M. Dubber