Women's Human Rights Resources Database

 

Your search for the subject "Migration" found 73 records.

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Documents by United Nations Bodies and Agencies

1
UNIFEM, Claim and Celebrate Women Migrants: Human Rights through CEDAW: The Case of Women Migrant Workers, A UNIFEM Briefing Paper, (2005)

This study seeks to show how CEDAW can be used to advance the rights of women migrant workers throughout the migration process. It begins with an introduction to CEDAW and the elements of a gender sensitive, rights-based perspective. The second section looks at the feminization of global labour migration and push and pull factors, emphasizing the need for gender-based analyses and responses. The last section of the study discusses how women migrants can claim human rights through CEDAW and uses examples to demonstrate good practices by governments, NGOs and the CEDAW Committee. This section also includes recommendations and illustrates how the inclusion of a General Recommendation on Migration within CEDAW would better enable the Convention to address women migrant workers' needs. [Descriptors: Migration  Labour Migration, International]

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2
United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Combating Human Trafficking in Asia: a Resource Guide to International and Legal Instruments, Political Commitments and Recommended Practices, (November 2003)

This Resource Guide presents a comprehensive breakdown of international and legal instruments that address trafficking in human beings. It groups and discusses law, instruments, policies, procedures and practices by various topics: legality, law enforcement, human rights, slavery and slavery-like practices, trafficking, migration, labour, gender and children's rights. The Guide provides details of the history, background, purpose and party obligations of these instruments. It also highlights key provisions and discusses how the law or policy can be utilized to protect the rights of trafficked persons. While the focus is not specifically on women, the instruments discussed by the Guide are nonetheless relevant to women victims of trafficking. [Descriptors: Migration - Trafficking, International]

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3
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Comment on "Not Just Numbers: A Canadian Framework for Future Immigration", 1998

This comment by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) addresses the above-titled report prepared by the Immigration Legislative Review Advisory Group (ILRAG). The March 1998 report takes a critical look at Canada's immigration objectives, legislation and policy. This comment looks particularly at ILRAG's recommendations regarding refugees and assesses these proposals in relation to international human rights standards, and "best practices" by States. The comment deals with the following areas of concern: (1) access to refugee status determination procedures, (2) treatment pending status determination, (3) status determination procedures, (4) criteria for protection, (5) appeal from a negative determination, and (6) the status and rights of recognized refugees. [Descriptors: Migration - Refugees and Immigration, Canada]

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4
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Comment on the Right of Appeal from Refugee Status Determination Hearings , 1999

Given that refused refugees may be returned to a country where they face persecution, this document addresses the proposal to allow a right of appeal from refugee status decisions in Canada. The comment maintains that the absence of an appeal to determine the merits of a first instance decision undermines Canada's reputation as a global leader in its refugee determination procedures and practices. The comment makes various recommendations, including a proposal for a written appeal process within the Immigration and Refugee Board (IRB) and the consolidation of various procedural steps in order to streamline services, enhance efficiency and maintain fairness. [Descriptors: Migration - Refugees and Immigration, Canada]

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5
Francis M. Deng, Compilation and Analysis of Legal Norms , E/CN.4/1996/52/Add.2 (1996)

The compilation and analysis of legal norms relevant to internally displaced persons aims to restate obligations under existing international human rights and humanitarian law and to identify areas where existing international law does not respond adequately to the protection and assistance needs of internally displaced persons. Section 6 of the report focuses on gender-specific violence facing displaced persons and comprehensively reviews the international legal instruments relevant to the protection of women from gender-based violence. This report formed the basis for the development of the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement. [Descriptors: Migration - Refugees and Immigration, International]

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6
Edwards, Alice, Displacement, Statelessness, and Questions of Gender Equality and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, (Apr. 2009)

This article demonstrates how CEDAW can be used to protect displaced and stateless women and girls who are vulnerable to violence and discrimination. The article provides an overview of the role of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women and describes the structures in place that support it in this role. The article discusses the lack of formal structures supporting the UNHCR in its function of overseeing implementation of statelessness conventions. The article suggests that CEDAW can be used to complement the role of the UNHCR by monitoring the implementation of human rights obligations in respect of displaced and stateless women.

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7
Yamanaka, Keiko, Piper, Nicola, Feminized Migration in East and Southeast Asia: Policies, Actions and Empowerment , (2005)

This paper, from the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, analyzes the causes, processes and consequences of the feminization of labour migration in Asia and the effectiveness of grassroots advocacy groups in destination countries in advancing women's human rights. It begins by examining the impact of rapid and uneven economic growth on female labour migration and historical patterns of female migration in the region. A discussion of migration policies and women migrant workers' legal status and their occupations in destination countries is also included. The last section looks at the actions of civil society groups in response to the plight of women migrant workers from Asia. The authors concludes that "although many legal and institutional barriers to social justice remain in labour-importing countries, civil actions by citizens and migrant comprise significant steps toward the realization of migrant workers' rights". [Descriptors: Migration - Labour Migration, International - Asia]

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8
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Guidelines on International Protection: Gender-Related Persecution within the context of Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or its 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees , HCR/GIP/02/01 (2002)

These Guidelines, developed by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), are intended "to provide legal interpretative guidance for governments, legal practitioners, decision-makers and the judiciary as well as UNHCR staff carrying out refugee status determination in the field." The guidelines begin with the non-legal definition of gender-related persecution, review the historical background of interpreting refugee law in light of gender and outline circumstances potentially amounting to a well-founded fear of persecution. The guidelines note that a common challenge in assessing gender-related claims is establishing the causal link between the fear of persecution and the Convention grounds. The guidelines review the various Convention grounds to argue that gender claims can be made under each of these grounds and not simply for persecution on account of membership in a particular social group. Specific procedural issues outlined in the conclusion focus on ensuring that the gender-related claims of women are properly considered. [Descriptors: Migration - Refugees and Immigration, International]

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9
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Guidelines on the Protection of Refugee Women, (Geneva: UNHCR, 1991).

The purpose of the guidelines is to identify some of the specific protection issues facing refugee women. The document focuses on the variety of mechanisms needed to achieve protection of refugee women, including the international legal framework. The guidelines address both the physical security problems and legal protection problems faced by refugee women. Under legal issues, there is a discussion of the lack of inclusion of gender within the 1951 Refugee Convention and a recommendation that governments recognize gender-related persecution as falling within the particular social group category. Also contained in the guidelines are many practical recommendations for increasing the protection of refugee women. [Descriptors: Migration - Refugees and Immigration, International]

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10
Deng, Francis M., Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement , E/CN.4/1998/53/Add.2 (1998)

In 1992, at the request of the UN Commission on Human Rights, the Secretary- General of the United Nations appointed a Special Representative to study the causes and consequences of internal displacement and the legal regimes which provided protection to this population. The Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement are the culmination of this research and consist of 30 principles based on international human rights, humanitarian and refugee law which outlined the rights of internally displaced persons. Some of the special needs of displaced women are identified within these guidelines. For example, Principle 19(2) provides that "special attention should be paid to the health needs of women, including access to female health care providers and services, such as reproductive health care, as well as appropriate counselling for victims of sexual and other abuses". [Descriptors: Migration - Refugees and Immigration, International]

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11
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Handbook on the Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status under the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol on the Status of Refugees , HCR/IP/4/ENG/REV.1 (1992)

This Handbook produced by UNHCR is a comprehensive resource for interpreting the 1951 Refugee Convention and the Additional Protocol. The document focuses primarily on the strict legal interpretation and reviews each article of the Convention and the Protocol. Although there are limited specific references to women, the Handbook is a useful tool and can be used in conjunction with the Guidelines on the Protection of Refugee Women. [Descriptors: Migration - Refugees and Immigration, International]

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12
UNIFEM, Human Rights Protection Applicable to Women Migrant Workers: A UNIFEM Briefing Paper, (2003)

This briefing paper aims to assist advocates advance women migrants' rights, with a special focus on women migrants in the domestic work sector. The paper discusses human rights violations and abuses suffered by migrant women workers and looks at potential remedies via international law. The International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and their Families; the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women, the International Covenant on Social, Economic and Cultural Rights; the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination are analyzed to determine how they can be improve women migrants' rights. [Descriptors: Migration - Labour Migration, International]

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13
Huda, Sigma, Integration of the Human Rights of Women and a Gender Perspective: Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights Aspects of the Victims of Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, (2006)

This report by the Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights Aspects of the Victims of Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, argues for greater focus on the human rights of women in combating sex trafficking. The report begins by briefly discussing the Special Rapporteur's activities throughout 2005. Section II focuses on the relationship between trafficking and the demand for commercial sexual exploitation. Discussions on the definition of trafficking in the UN Trafficking Protocol and the concept of demand are also included. The report ends with the Special Rapporteur's conclusions and recommendations on a variety of issues related to sex trafficking. [Descriptors: Migration - Trafficking, International]

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14
Coomaraswamy, Radhika, United Nations Economic and Social Commission For Asai and the Pacific, Moving Beijing Forward: Gaps and Challenges: Violence Against Women and Trafficking, (2004)

This paper was prepared by the former UN Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women, Radhika Coomaraswamy, for a high-level intergovernmental meeting of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. She begins by discussing the nature of trafficking and the structural factors that push women to migrate. The lack of international consensus on the best approach to trafficking and the relationship between trafficking and prostitution are also examined. The paper ends by analyzing the responses of the international community, including the UN Trafficking Protocol as well as the national legislation and domestic policies of individual states. Women's personal trafficking experiences are also included. [Descriptors: Migration - Trafficking, International]

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15
Truong, Thanh-Dam, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Poverty, Gender and Human Trafficking in Sub-Saharan Africa: Rethinking Best Practices in Migration Management, (2006)

This study examines trafficking of women and children in Sub-Saharan Africa and the conditions that fuel smuggling and trafficking, focusing on poverty and governance issues. The aim of the study is to identify strategies that effectively mitigate human rights violations that occur throughout the migration process. The study begins by exploring the links between poverty, migration and gender against the background of neoliberal economic policies. An assessment of current migration regimes in Sub-Saharan African and international law is then compared with the self-assessment and observations of ten NGOs in Africa. The author concludes by advocating a holistic understanding of trafficking that encompasses diverse interpretations in order to effectively address trafficking. [Descriptors: Migration - Trafficking, International - Africa]

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16
UNHCR Sub-Committee of the Whole on International Protection, Progress Report on The Implementation of the UNHCR Guidelines on the Protection of Refugee Women , EC/SCP/74 (1992)

This review of the immediate implementation of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees guidelines contains detailed information on the practical implementation of these guidelines within refugee populations. Under legal concerns, the report identifies that women are often unable to claim refugee status independent from their husbands, leading to significant obstacles for women claiming refugee status. There is also a discussion about the lack of legal frameworks within the refugee camps which leads to protection concerns for refugee women. [Descriptors: Migration - Refugees and Immigration, International]

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17
United Nations Economic and Social Council, Recommended Principles and Guidelines on Human Rights and Human Trafficking, E/2002/68/Add.1, 2002.

This set of recommended principles by ECOSOC argues for the primacy of human rights in states' efforts to prevent and combat trafficking as well as assist and protect trafficked persons. The recommended principles address four main areas: the primacy of human rights in the anti-trafficking dialogue; prevention of trafficking; victim protection and assistance; and criminalization, punishment and redress. While the principles apply equally to both men and women, Guideline 1, Guideline 5 and Guideline 7 include provisions that highlight the special vulnerability of women to trafficking, and recommend that governments take action to ensure that women are not discriminated against. [Descriptors: Migration - Trafficking, International]

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18
UN Commission on Human Rights, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants , E/CN.4/2005/85 (2005)

In 1999, the United Nations Commission on Human Rights appointed a Special Rapporteur to examine means for protecting the human rights of migrants. The 2005 edition of the subsequent annual reports of the Special Rapporteur reviews the progress achieved and the activities undertaken within this mandate. Part II of the report contains a specific focus on migrant women and unaccompanied minors. Some of the particular issues reviewed are the conditions of migrant women employed in domestic service and violence against migrant women. The report also points to the need for better information about the specific problems of migrant women. [Descriptors: Migration - Refugees and Immigration, International]

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19
United Nations Economic and Social Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights of Migrants: Migrant Domestic Workers, (2004)

This report discusses the abuse and human rights violations experienced by migrant domestic workers, focusing specifically on the situation of live-in women workers. The report begins by briefly outlining recent activities carried out by the Special Rapporteur, and focuses its analysis on the situation of migrant domestic workers. It describes structural factors that increase the vulnerability of migrant domestic workers, and highlights the need for watchdog mechanisms and adequate monitoring by governments, recruiting agencies and consulates. The Special Rapporteur emphasizes throughout her report that domestic work is crucial to the development process of many countries and a lawful form of employment that deserves legal protection. She ends with a series of concluding observations and recommendations to governments of origin and destination countries. [Descriptors: Migration - Labour Migration, International]

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20
UN General Assembly, Resolution 54/166: Protection of Migrants , A/RES/54/166 (2000)

This United Nations General Assembly Resolution, which was adopted 24 February 2000, requests States to protect migrants' human rights; strongly condemns racial discrimination and xenophobia with regard to access to employment, housing, schooling, and services; calls upon States to ensure that immigration policies do not discriminate against migrants; reiterates the need for States to protect the human rights of migrants (especially for women and children); and encourages States to enact criminal legislation to combat the international trafficking of migrants. [Desciptors: Migration -Labour Migration, Refugees and Immigration, Trafficking]

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21
UN Commission on Human Rights, Resolution on violence against women migrant workers , 2002/58

This United Nations resolution calls upon governments to impose penal sanctions on perpetrators of violence against women migrant workers and to provide assistance to victims. It also invites states to consider adopting legal measures to deal with the clandestine movement of workers and the exploitation of women migrant workers, and encourages states to consider signing and ratifying or acceding to the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (which entered into force on July 1, 2003) as well as the Slavery Convention. This resolution also covers other broad interests of women migrant workers. [Descriptors: Migration - Labour Migration]

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22
UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, Trafficking in Human Beings, Especially Women and Children in Africa, (2003)

Noting the lack of research on trafficking in Africa, this study provides an overview of issues related to trafficking on the continent as well as an assessment of good practices in migration management. Beginning with a discussion of the UN trafficking definition, the study then examines the trafficking patterns and factors that encourage and perpetuate this activity. It explores trafficking patterns within and from Africa and looks at legal frameworks and policy responses by governments and other actors in civil society that address trafficking. It concludes by highlighting the importance of using a human rights framework and facilitating cooperation and coordination among key stakeholders in order to effectively address trafficking. [Descriptors: Migration - Trafficking, International - Africa]

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23
UNIFEM-East and Southeast Asia Regional Office and the United Nations Inter-agency Project on Human Trafficking in the Mekong Sub-region, Trafficking in Persons: a Gender and Rights Perspective, (no date)

This briefing kit examines the trafficking of women and girls in Southeast Asia. It begins by looking at the demand and supply factors that encourage and perpetuate trafficking, and the abuses and stresses that women face during and after trafficking. The report emphasizes the importance of a gender-responsive, rights-based approach to trafficking that is "responsive to gender differences and disparities, and focused on realizing human rights equitably and hence equally for women and men". Using this framework, the report then argues that effective anti-trafficking strategies must include prevention, protection and assistance, return and resettlement, and research and advocacy. These strategies are illustrated by examples of current activities by organizations and groups in the region. [Descriptors: Migration - Trafficking, International - Asia]

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24
Shahinian, Gulnara, United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women, Trafficking in Women and Girls, (2002)

This concept paper provides an overview of trafficking in women and girls in Eastern Europe and the Newly Independent States. The author points to poor social and economic conditions, lack of employment opportunities, unequal status of women and the demand for cheap labour in destination countries as factors that increase the vulnerability of women to trafficking. The author urges governments to prioritize human rights and consider the multi-faceted nature of trafficking in the creation of comprehensive strategies to prevent and eradicate trafficking. The second half of the paper discusses recommendations that are based on the "three-P" approach of prevention, prosecution and protection. [Descriptors: Migration - Trafficking, International - Europe]

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25
United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Violence against and the Trafficking in Women and Symptoms of Discrimination: The Potential of CEDAW as an Antidote, (2005)

This paper discusses trafficking of women in the Asia Pacific and the potential of CEDAW to reduce trafficking and violence against women in the region. The paper begins with a discussion on the conceptual understanding of trafficking and outlines trafficking patterns in the Asia Pacific. It then examines various facets of trafficking, including human rights, gender, forced labour, migration and poverty. The last section of the paper focuses on CEDAW and the legal obligations of ratified parties to protect women's human rights. The paper concludes that while the UN Trafficking Protocol takes primarily a law enforcement approach, CEDAW is more able to address the underlying causes that perpetuate violence against and trafficking of women. [Descriptors: Migration - Trafficking, International - Asia]

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26
United Nations General Assembly, Violence Against Women Migrant Workers - Report of the Secretary-General Delivered to the General Assembly, U.N. Doc A/64/152 (July 16, 2009)

This report focuses on violence against female migrant workers. It describes the international legal framework, and measures taken by States and within the United Nations system to implement the UN General Assembly resolution requiring governments to address violence against migrant women workers. The report finds that the development of laws and policy has focused on gender equality, violence against women and worker's rights as opposed to targeting female migrant workers. It offers recommendations to ameliorate this approach, encouraging States to ensure their legislation effectively protects the human rights and comprehensively addresses violence against both documented and undocumented migrant workers The report also calls for mechanisms to be put in place to assess the effectiveness of relevant legislation.

 
Government Bodies

27
Côté, Andrée , Kérisit, Michèle, Sponsorship. . . For Better or For Worse: The Impact of Sponsorship on the Equality Rights of Immigrant Women, Status of Women Canada (2001)

This report reviews the provisions in Canadian immigration legislation which address family reunification by allowing immigration to Canada through sponsorship by a relative. The report acknowledges a difficulty in balancing the importance of family reunification with protection of women who are potentially vulnerable to abusive spouses. The report reviews the legal framework governing the sponsorship system and assesses the extent to which this framework limits the equality rights of migrant women. The report uses an international human rights framework to assess the impact of this system on women, particularly their vulnerability to violence and violations of their economic and social rights. The report includes recommendations for legislative changes to better protect women's rights. [Descriptors: Migration - Refugees and Immigration, Canada]

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28
Bruckert, Christine, Parent, Colette, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Trafficking in Human Beings and Organized Crime: A Literature Review, (2002)

This paper seeks to provide an overview of key issues related to trafficking and identify areas for future research, with a special focus on trafficking in Canada. The authors begin by discussing the debates over the trafficking definition and examining various theoretical perspectives on trafficking. They then analyze the role of organized crime and look at legislative responses, noting governments tendency to focus on the organized crime aspect. Although this paper does not focus specifically on women, it notes the growth in the feminization of international migration and the disproportionate impact of trafficking on women and girls. [Descriptors: Migration - Trafficking, Canada]

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29
United States Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report 2005, (2005)

The fifth annual Trafficking in Persons Report provides an assessment of foreign governments' responses to trafficking and ranks states according to their levels of complicity with minimum standards to eradicate trafficking. The report takes the "three P" approach which revolves around prevention, prosecution and protection. It also emphasizes the victim-centered "three R" framework that focuses on rescue, rehabilitation and reintegration. The first section of the report analyzes the various dimensions, causes and effects of trafficking and the rest of the report provides individual country profiles. While the report does not focus specifically on women, the issues discussed are nonetheless relevant to women's human rights. [Descriptors: Migration - Trafficking, International]

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30
Langevin, Louise , Belleau, Marie-Claire, Trafficking in Women: A Critical Analysis of the Legal Framework Governing Immigrant Live-In Caregivers and Mail-Order Brides, Status of Women Canada (2000)

This extensive report focuses on two groups of women migrants in Canada: live-in caregivers and mail-order brides. The analysis of the live-in caregivers program outlines policy rationales for the historical development of this program and identifies potential amendments to existing legislation to better protect the rights of these women. In assessing the status of mail-order brides, the report reviews the complex legal framework which governs this form of migration. The report uses a feminist analytical framework to demonstrate how the apparently neutral legislation governing these types of migration results in significant human rights violations. The authors conclude by advocating for both domestic and international action to better protect the rights of these women migrants. [Descriptors: Migration - Refugees and Immigration, Canada]

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31
Immigration and Refugee Board (Canada), Women Refugee Claimants Fearing Gender-Related Persecution: Guidelines Issued by the Chairperson Pursuant to Section 65(3) of the Immigration Act, 1996

These Guidelines issued by the Canadian Immigration and Refugee Board are often cited as the first explicit governmental recognition that persecution on account of gender is a valid ground on which to claim refugee status. The guidelines emphasize that for these claims to be accepted a link must be made between gender and the feared persecution and that these claims are still assessed on an individual basis. There are several items of note within the Guidelines including that persecution on account of gender can occur as a result of both public and private action and that sub-groups of women could also be considered as persecuted groups. The Guidelines also review some of the evidentiary issues in these types of claims and provide recommendations for how to best recognize the social and political circumstances of these women. [Descriptors: Migration - Refugees and Immigration, Canada]

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Information from Non-Governmental Organizations

32
Global Rights, Partners for Justice, Annotated Guide to the Complete UN Trafficking Protocol (Palermo Protocol), (no date)

This guide aims "to assist advocates in the development of a human rights framework for national anti-trafficking laws and policies". It combines into one document relevant portions of the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime; the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children; and the Interpretative Notes to the Trafficking Protocol. A background to these three UN documents as well as a short discussion comparing the law enforcement approach and the human rights approach to human trafficking are also provided in the Introduction. [Descriptors: Migration - Trafficking, International]

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33
National Association of Women and the Law (NAWL) , Brief on the Proposed Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (Bill C-11) Submitted to the Standing Committee on Citizenship and Immigration, April 2001

This brief uses a human rights approach to analyze the Canadian Immigration and Refugee Protection Act of 2001. One of the key recommendations within the report is the necessity of a gender-based analysis of the particular changes to the law. As well, the report notes that the new legislation fails to incorporate many of the regional and international human rights treaties to which Canada is a signatory. Areas of immigration law discussed in the report include family class, sponsorship regime, humanitarian and compassionate considerations, gender-based persecution, and human trafficking. [Descriptors: Migration - Refugees and Immigration, Canada]

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34
Canadian Feminist Alliance for International Action, Canada's Failure to Act: Women's Inequality Deepens, (January 2003)

This report addresses the accountability of the Canadian government to the commitments made under the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). The report notes the particular vulnerability of immigrant and refugee women and critiques amendments to immigration legislation under Bill C-11 as failing to fully recognize Canada's international legal obligations to protect these women. The report reviews specific categories of immigrants and identifies areas in which the legislation has negative impacts upon women. The report also addresses concerns over the detention of refugees and illegal immigrants and issues of trafficking. [Descriptors: Migration - Refugees and Immigration, CEDAW Convention, Canada]

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35
Asian Development Bank, Combating Trafficking of Women and Children in South Asia: Regional Synthesis Paper for Bangladesh, India and Nepal, (2003)

As the Asian Development Bank recognizes the detrimental effect of trafficking upon development, it presents this regional synthesis paper in order to examine what role it can play in eradicating trafficking in South Asia. The paper begins by analyzing the concept of trafficking and the nature of trafficking in South Asia. Based on empirical studies, the paper then looks at the underlying factors that perpetuate the trafficking and exploitation of women and girls in the region. The legal framework of trafficking and regional and national initiatives against trafficking are also analyzed. It ends with a series of recommendations and proposed initiatives for the Asian Development Bank. [Descriptors: Migration - Trafficking, International - Asia]

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36
Center for Reproductive Rights, Displaced and Disregarded: Refugees and their Reproductive Rights, Briefing Paper: October 2001

This paper begins with a discussion of the extent to which the reproductive health of women refugees and internally displaced persons is threatened by their vulnerable situation, including the risk of sexual coercion and the lack of access to reproductive health care. The paper then moves to consider the relevant legal and policy framework for the protection of these populations. The paper explicitly identifies the relevant human rights provisions and provides the text from international and regional treaties and conventions which protect these rights. In conclusion, the paper states that the right to reproductive self-determination is critical for the protection of refugee women. [Descriptors: Migration - Refugees and Immigration, International]

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37
Sircar, Oishik, Engendering Persecution: Refugee law, International Protection and Violence Against Women in South Asia, WISCOMP (Women in Security, Conflict Management and Peace). Discussion Paper.

This paper makes a case for including gender-based persecution as a legal ground for seeking protection under international refugee law.

38
International Organization for Migration, Fertile Fields: Trafficking in Persons in Central Asia, (2005)

This paper discusses trafficking in Central Asia. It begins by describing the social, political and economic conditions that fuel trafficking in the region. An overview of trafficking for sexual and labour exploitation and the differences between trafficking and smuggling are then discussed. The paper also discusses definitional debates and the blurry line between trafficking and other forms of irregular migration that involve exploitation and human rights violations. The author questions "whether the UN intended the [trafficking] definition to be read in a narrow way [&] or whether it was intended as an inclusive definition capable of capturing a diversity of contexts". Advocating an approach that combines prosecution, protection and prevention, the author concludes that separate elements of trafficking should be criminalized in order to ensure that rights violations related to irregular migrations other than trafficking are recognized. [Descriptors: Migration - Trafficking, International]

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39
Tastsoglou, Evangelia, Preston, Valerie, Joint Centre of Excellence for Research on Immigration and Settlement, Gender, Immigration and Labour Market Integration: Where We Are and What We Still Need to Know, (2006)

This short paper discusses the relationship between gender, migration and the Canadian labour market with the aim of advancing theoretical conceptions of migrant women's involvement in the labour market. It begins by outlining a conceptual framework for integration and labour market integration from an equity and feminist perspective. The authors critique current understandings of migrant women's involvement in paid employment, arguing that "alternative ways of assessing the economic and labour market integration of immigrant women must be devised". The authors seek measures that recognize and capture the unequal treatment and discrimination against immigrant women in the labour market. [Descriptors: Migration - Labour Migration, Canada]

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40
International Labour Organization, Getting at the Roots: Stopping Exploitation of Migrant Workers by Organized Crime, (2002)

This paper looks at the exploitation of migrant workers by organized crime in the larger context of labour migration and regulation. It begins by discussing push and pull factors including the demand for cheap labour in destination countries, lack of employment security in origin countries, poverty and the loss of traditional economies and societies. The second section examines various dimensions of the exploitation of migrant workers including immigration policies, labour standards and gender. The third section provides an overview of trafficking for forced labour in different regions. The paper concludes with a set of recommendations. [Descriptors: Migration - Labour Migration, International]

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41
Sanchis, Norma, Globalization, Trade and Trafficking in Women in Latin America, (2005)

This paper discusses trafficking of women in Latin America in the context of economic globalization. The author begins by providing the context for trafficking of women in the region and discusses the relationship between neoliberalism, economic globalization and trafficking. Conditions that enable and perpetuate trafficking are also examined as the author uses a value chain framework to analyze the key actors and conditions that make women vulnerable to trafficking in Latin American. Families and communities, recruitment agencies, trafficking networks and demand for trafficked women are identified as links in this trafficking chain. The author concludes with a set of recommendations and by emphasizing the need for more research on trafficking women in Latin America. [Descriptors: Migration - Trafficking, International - Latin America]

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42
Human Rights Watch, Help Wanted: Abuses against Female Migrant Domestic Workers in Indonesia and Malaysia, (2004)

This report discusses the situation of Indonesian female migrant domestic workers in Malaysia. It describes the human rights violations of workers by recruiters as well as workplace abuses by employers. The report also highlights some of the failures to provide protection of migrant workers' rights by both the Indonesian and Malaysian governments. Domestic and international laws are also examined in order to determine the extent to which both Southeast Asian governments have addressed these human rights violations. The report concludes that both governments have failed to uphold their international human rights obligations under the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women and the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and urges ratification of other relevant treaties. [Descriptors: Migration - Labour Migration, International - Asia]

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43
Human Rights Watch, Hidden in the Home: Abuse of Domestic Workers with Special Visas in the United States, (2001)

This report discusses the exploitation, abuse and humiliation suffered by women migrant domestic workers in the United States. It begins by providing a background to the situation of migrant domestic workers in the US. Using case studies, the report then analyzes the vulnerabilities of live-in migrant domestic workers to human rights violations. An assessment of US laws and policies regarding special domestic workers visas is then provided; the report argues that the US has failed to adequately protect and ensure access to justice for migrant domestic workers. It ends with a series of recommendations. [Descriptors: Migration - Labour Migration, International - North America]

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44
Coontz, Phyllis, Griebel, Catherine, International Approaches to Human Trafficking: The Call for a Gender Sensitive Perspective in International Law, (2004)

This document discusses human trafficking and various international anti-trafficking laws, focusing on the UN Trafficking Protocol. It begins by providing a background of human trafficking, debates concerning its definition and the impact of these differing opinions on the treatment of trafficking under international law. The authors then compare the treatment of women under CEDAW and the Trafficking Protocol. They conclude that while CEDAW aims to achieve equality between women and men, the Trafficking Protocol prioritizes law enforcement and fails to address the demand side of trafficking as well as the structural economic inequalities that fuel trafficking of women. They argue that in order for anti-trafficking strategies to be effective, the Trafficking Protocol must focus on the rights and needs of women. [Descriptors: Migration - Trafficking, International]

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45
Canadian Council for Refugees, International Conference on Refugee Women Fleeing Gender-Based Persecution, Montreal (4-6 May 2001)

This publication is a compilation of workshop proceedings and papers presented at the Canadian Council for Refugees' International Conference on Refugee Women Fleeing Gender-Based Persecution held in Montreal in May 2001 (full conference proceedings can be ordered from the Canadian Council for Refugees). The conference examined recent developments which have begun to address the obstacles for women claiming refugee status on the grounds of gender-based persecution. Emerging legal standards and proposals for reforms discussed at the conference included granting asylum in cases of persecution by private actors when states do not afford victims adequate protection and addressing the cultural barriers that hinder successful asylum claims by women. [Descriptors: Migration - Refugees and Immigration, International]

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46
International Law Association Committee on Feminism and International Law, Part II: Feminism in International Law: Committee Report, 72 INTERNATIONAL LAW ASSOCIATION REPORTS OF CONFERENCES, 601-643 (2006)

This Report forms part of a series of four Reports on various aspects of women and migration. The report continues the work on trafficking introduced in the 2004 Berlin Interim Report. The main focus of the report is on the legal framework of women's international labor migration. The author references the Workers Convention, international human rights and labor law conventions. The Report discusses the legal and gendered aspects of of female migrant workers' mobility in relation to their migration status, and advocates for a rights based approach to international migration.

47
The European Council on Refugees and Exiles, Position on Asylum Seeking and Refugee Women, 1997

The starting point for this paper is that women refugees are unable to benefit equitably from legal protection and social assistance. The legal obstacles facing women are both substantive and procedural. The position paper proposes development in the immigration and refugee law of the European Union to better address gender issues in refugee determination. On a procedural basis there is often a lack of information on the specific human rights situation facing women in the countries from which they are seeking refuge. The paper contains extensive recommendations on both the procedural and substantive aspects of addressing refugee claims of women. [Descriptors: Migration - Refugees and Immigration, International - Europe]

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48
Apap, Joanna, Medved, Felicita, International Organization for Migration, Protection Schemes for Victims of Trafficking in Selected EU Member Countries, Candidate and Third Countries, International Organization for Migration, (2002)

This report was prepared for the Seminar on Exchange of Information and Best Practices Regarding Protection Schemes for Victims of Trafficking in Selected EU Member Countries, Candidates and Third Countries held in Madrid in 2002. The authors argue that current European anti-trafficking measures fail to prioritize the rights of victims of trafficking and overemphasize the needs of law enforcement. They recommend that a successful response to trafficking involves a combination of prevention, prosecution of traffickers and protection of victims' human rights. The report begins by looking at concepts and definitions of trafficking. Victim protection schemes and legislative responses of ten European countries are then examined. The report concludes with a set of recommendations. [Descriptors: Migration - Trafficking, International - Europe]

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49
Amnesty International, Refugees: Human Rights Have No Borders, AI Index: ACT 34/03/97 (1997)

"This comprehensive report offers an overview of current refugees issues worldwide, background information on international refugee and human rights law, a wide variety of well-researched case histories and key arguments for refugee advocates". Although this report is from 1997, it still provides a good introduction to refugee issues. Amnesty identifies in its conclusions that the refugee crisis cannot be solved unless human rights are respected and calls on governments to fulfill their human rights obligations under international law. The report also recognizes the different challenges facing refugee women, particularly if fleeing violence from within the home. [Descriptors: Migration - Refugees and Immigration, International]

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50
Brookings-CUNY Project on Internal Displacement, Selected Bibliography on the Global Crisis of Internal Displacement, Washington, D.C., December 2001.

This bibliography, prepared by Gimena Sanchez-Garzoli, comprehensively outlines resources relating to internally displaced persons. The bibliography covers basic texts; web resources; "early writings" on internal displacement; the legal framework; protection strategies; the institutional framework of the involved international, regional, national, and nongovernmental organizations; and "vulnerable groups", including women. Nearly three full pages are devoted to women (the other vulnerable groups being children and the elderly), and this section, beginning on page 22, covers both general and regionally-specific sources. [Descriptors: Migration - Refugees and Immigration, International]

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51
Ekberg, Gunilla S. , Coalition Against Trafficking in Women  Canada, Submission to the House Standing Committee on Citizenship and Immigration, Canada, Coalition Against Trafficking in Women - Canada (April 2001)

This submission addresses Bill C-11 which proposed changes to Canada's immigration legislation and focuses on the extent to which these changes can protect the rights of women who have been trafficked. The report begins with a review of the international legal framework governing trafficking in women and outlines Canada's international legal obligations. The report then turns to the specific elements of the legislation and advocates an explicit inclusion of Canada's international human rights obligations and an increased recognition of the vulnerability of women to trafficking exploitation. The conclusion of the paper summarizes the key recommendations to increase protection for victims of trafficking in Canada. [Descriptors: Migration - Refugees and Immigration, Canada]

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52
Philippine Women Centre of B.C., The New Frontier for Filipino Mail-Order Brides, (2000)

This community-based research paper seeks to document the situation of Filipino mail-order brides in Canada. The paper begins with a short literature review and then examines the global and historical context of the migration of Filipino women to Canada, documenting the experiences of Filipino women in Canada and other countries. Personal experiences of Filipino mail-order brides in Canada are also recounted. The study covers numerous issues faced by Filipino mail-order brides including abuse, deception, isolation, de-skilling, stereotypes of Asian women, disempowerment, and assertion and resistance. The paper concludes with policy recommendations in the areas of immigration, violence against women and trafficking of women, women's economic situation, human rights and legal systems. [Descriptors: Migration - Trafficking, Canada]

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53
The Getting Landed Project (Citizens for Public Justice), Too Many Missing Pieces: A Brief in Response to Bill C-31, Submitted to the [Canadian] House of Commons' Standing Committee on Citizenship and Immigration , August 15, 2000

"The Getting Landed Project holds that limbo is the most significant obstacle facing refugees in Canada today." This brief examines the issue of 'limbo' - the situation of refugees in Canada who do not have landed status and whose entire lives are on hold. The brief makes a number of recommendations about how to reduce and eliminate limbo and other barriers to landing and family reunification. The brief examines whether the proposed Immigration and Refugee Protection Act meets its own objectives in balancing Canada's security and its commitment to providing sanctuary to those in need of protection, and also whether this Bill complies with the various refugee and international human rights instruments to which Canada is a signatory. This brief is an example of how domestic legislation is being reviewed with an eye to international human rights obligations. [Descriptors: Migration - Refugees and Immigration, Canada]

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54
Anti-Slavery International, Trafficking in Women, Forced Labour and Domestic Work: In the Context of the Middle East and Gulf Region, (2005)

This paper analyzes the plight of women migrant domestic workers in the Middle East and the Gulf Region. The study begins by examining push and pull factors that contribute to the vulnerability of women migrants, including gendered aspects of migration and labour. An assessment of national laws and their provisions for migrant domestic workers is also provided. The second half of the report looks at strategies to mitigate rights violations, prevent trafficking and protect victims. The report concludes with a set of recommendations for IGOs, NGOs, governments and academics in the region. Personal narratives throughout the report illustrate the lack of protection and justice afforded to women migrant domestic workers. [Descriptors: Migration - Labour Migration, International - Asia]

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55
Phinney, Alison, Pan-American Health Organization, Trafficking of Women and Children for Sexual Exploitation in the Americas, (2002)

This paper discusses the sex trafficking of women and children in the Americas. Using a human rights framework, the author begins by analyzing the demand and supply sides of trafficking for sexual exploitation, as well as the impunity with which traffickers are treated. She argues that these three factors allow for the growth of the trafficking industry: "the resulting environment allows high profits at low risk for the traffickers, but with serious health risks and human rights violations for the victims". Human rights violations and the impact on women's health are also discussed. The paper ends with an assessment of international law and the effectiveness of their protection. [Descriptors: Migration - Trafficking, International - Latin America]

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International Conventions and Declarations

56
International Labour Organization, Convention concerning Migration for Employment , C097, 1952.

Adopted by the General Conference of the International Labour Organization on July 1, 1949, this ILO Convention entered into force on January 22, 1952. The Convention affirms the rights of individuals who migrate for employment and the obligations of sending and receiving governments. While the provisions do not apply specifically to women migrant workers, they cover a range of issues that are relevant to women who migrate for employment including misleading immigration and emigration propaganda, provision of medical care, discrimination in the labour market, injuries and illnesses, and remittances. Also annexed to the Convention are provisions dealing with the recruitment, placement and conditions of labour migrants recruited via non-government and government schemes, as well as provisions related to the movement of migrants' personal belongings, tools and equipment. [Descriptors: Migration - Labour Migration, International]

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57
International Labour Organization, Convention Concerning Migrations in Abusive Conditions and the Promotion of Equality of Opportunity and Treatment of Migrant Workers, C143, 1978.

This Convention was adopted by the General Conference of the International Labour Organization on June 24, 1975 and entered into force on December 9, 1978. While the provisions do not apply specifically to women migrant workers, they are relevant to women who migrate for employment. Part I of the Convention recognizes and seeks to prevent abuse of migrant workers, namely by suppressing clandestine movement for employment and illegal employment. Part II of the Convention affirms migrant workers' rights to equal opportunity and treatment relating to employment and occupation, social security, trade unions and cultural rights, and individual and collective freedoms. [Descriptors: Migration - Labour Migration, International]

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58
United Nations, Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others, G.A. Res. 317(IV), 1951.

This UN Convention was approved by the General Assembly on December 2, 1949 and entered into force on July 25, 1951, adding to a number of existing international legal instruments that support the suppression of trafficking women and children. While this Convention can be applied equally to men and women, the Preamble, Article 17 and Article 20 make special reference to the added danger of exploitation faced by women and children. The Convention links trafficking with prostitution and sexual exploitation; its aim is to eradicate trafficking for the purposes of prostitution, end the exploitation of prostitution and curb the prostitution industry in general. Other provisions address issues related to jurisdiction, prosecution, victim support and prevention. [Descriptors: Migration - Trafficking, International]

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59
Council of Europe, Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings and its Explanatory Report, COUNCIL OF EUROPE TREATY SERIES - NO. 197.

Taking the UN Trafficking Protocol as its starting point, this 2005 Council of Europe Convention seeks to strengthen the protection afforded by other international legal instruments for trafficked persons. Using the UN definition of human trafficking, the Convention highlights the safeguarding and protection of human rights and human dignity as one of its primary concerns. As it seeks a proper balance between human rights issues and prosecution of traffickers, the Convention discusses matters such as gender equality and measures to protect and promote rights of victims; as well as substantial criminal law, procedural law, investigation and prosecution. [Descriptors: Migration - Trafficking, International - Europe].

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60
United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, G.A. Res. 45/158, 2003.

Adopted by the UN General Assembly on December 18, 1990, this UN Convention entered into force on July 1, 2003 with the aim of preventing and eradicating the exploitation and abuse of migrant workers. Although the Convention is not specific to women, the provisions are relevant to womens rights as migrant workers. The provisions focus on non-discrimination against migrant workers and protection of their human rights in order to promote "sound, equitable, humane and lawful conditions" for migrant workers and their families. The Convention is important as it outlines binding international standards, obligations and responsibilities of both origin and destination states. It is also notable for defining and affirming the rights of certain categories of migrants and their families. [Descriptors: Migration - Labour Migration, International]

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61
Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees , 189 U.N.T.S. 150 (1951)

The Refugee Convention was adopted by the UN General Assembly on April 22, 1954 and entered into force on December 14, 1954. The Refugee Convetion is the primary international document that defines who is a refugee and that sets out their rights for asylum protection. [Descriptors: Migration - Refugees and Immigration, International]

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62
Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons , 360 U.N.T.S. 117 (1960)

This Convention addresses the protection of rights of individuals who are not considered nationals of any one state. The Convention outlines the status which such persons shall receive in regards to various issues including property, employment and access to the judicial system. The rights of having the work of women recognized is specifically addressed. [Descriptors: Migration - Refugees and Immigration, International]

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63
UN General Assembly, Declaration on the Human Rights of Individuals Who are not Nationals of the Country in which They Live , A/40/53 (1985)

This declaration is based on the idea that the fundamental rights of individuals should be protected even within countries of which they are not nationals. The rights of women are specifically highlighted in ensuring fair and equal treatment within employment. [Descriptors: Migration - Refugees and Immigration, International]

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64
International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families , A/45/49 (2005)

The Convention on the Protection of the Rights of Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families was adopted by the UN General Assembly on December 18, 1990 and entered into force on July 1, 2003. The purpose of the Convention is to protect the rights of migrant workers who are vulnerable to exploitation and abuse due to their uncertain status in the country in which they are working. Although women are not mentioned specifically within the Convention, the Convention does recognize the principles within the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. The Convention establishes a set of binding international standards that concern the treatment, welfare and basic rights of all migrants, both documented and undocumented, in addition to the obligations and responsibilities to which the States that send and receive migrants must adhere. [Descriptors: Key Treaties and Texts, Migration - Labour Migration, International]

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65
United Nations, Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, G.A. Res. A/RES/54/263, 2002.

This Optional Protocol was adopted by the UN General Assembly on May 25, 2000 and entered into force on June 18, 2002. The aim of the protocol is to eradicate the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, and foster international cooperation in bringing the perpetrators of these crimes to justice. The preamble of the protocol identifies the girl child as particularly vulnerable to, and disproportionately affected by, sexual exploitation. Other provisions of the protocol address jurisdictional issues, compensation of victims, special consideration for the interest of the child in legal proceedings, public awareness campaigns and international cooperation in investigations, information exchange and extradition. [Descriptors: Migration - Trafficking, International]

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66
Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees , 606 U.N.T.S. 267 (1967)

This protocol amends the definition of refugee under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees. The Protocol also encourages cooperation with the UN High Commissioner for Refugees to ensure that the rights of refugees are protected. [Descriptors: Migration - Refugees and Immigration, International]

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67
United Nations, Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking, Especially Women and Children, Supplementing the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, G.A. Res. A/RES/55/25, 2003.

Adopted by the UN General Assembly on November 15, 2000, the Trafficking Protocol came into force on December 25, 2003 to supplement the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime. The aim of the Protocol is to prevent and combat trafficking, and protect and assist trafficked persons. While it applies equally to men and women, the title and preamble recognize that women and children are particularly vulnerable to this crime. While older laws conflate trafficking with the exploitation of human beings, the Protocol specifically addresses the activity of trafficking in itself. The Protocol is also notable for establishing a comprehensive and up-to-date definition of trafficking. [Descriptors: Migration - Trafficking, International]

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Other

68
Goodwin-Gill, Guy S., Advisory Opinion on Select Articles of the 1951 Refugee Convention , 2000

This web page provides an advisory opinion by Guy S. Goodwin-Gill on the interpretation of Articles 25, 27, 28 of 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees. These articles deal with the rights of refugees who do not have identity documents required to obtain landed (permanent resident) status. The report considers relevant international law standards, the background and scope of the above articles, an overview of current Canadian law and practice and how these relate to international standards. It concludes with a number of recommendations. A full list of United Nations High Commissioner for Refugee Comments on Canada's refugee policies can also be viewed. [Descriptors: Migration - Refugees and Immigration, International]

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69
Neacsu, Dana, Gender Based Persecution as a Basis for Asylum: An Annotated Bibliography, unpublished- unique to Women's Human Rights Resources, March 2002

The author notes that asylum has been extended in United States law to include some gender-based treatment, such as female genital mutilation (FGM), viewed as a type of persecution. The author points out that despite references to international norms suggesting what constitutes a refugee and the criteria of a "well-founded fear of persecution," US law has not moved beyond FGM to view general gender-based persecution as a ground for asylum. The author suggests that even this basis for asylum arose when American society "found it so outrageous as to criminalize it domestically." This extensive bibliography is itself a collection of annotations of recent literature from American and English secondary sources concerning the direction of US legislation and asylum case-law. [Descriptors: Migration - Refugees and Immigration, International - North America]

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70
Satterthwaite, Margaret, Intersecting Protections, Migrating Women: Using Human Rights Law to Empower Women Migrant Workers, Center for Human Rights and Global Justice Working Paper No. 6 (2004)

The focus of this paper is the exploitation of migrant domestic workers and the necessity of looking for protection mechanisms beyond the new Migrant Worker's Convention. The paper begins with an examination of the movement of women workers globally. In looking to the needs of women migrant workers, the paper argues that an intersectionality approach would be appropriate for recognizing the impacts of gender, race and ethnicity. As such, the protection of women, workers, and migrants as separate regimes could be utilized to assist women migrant workers in seeking protection under existing human rights norms. [Descriptors: Migration - Labour Migration, International

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71
Zimmerman, Cathy, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, The Health Risks and Consequences of Trafficking Women and Adolescents: Findings from a European Study including Human Rights Analysis of Health and Trafficking and Principles for Promoting the Health Rights of Trafficked Women, (2003)

Based largely on interviews with trafficked women, health care providers, NGOs, law enforcement officers and policymakers, this study focuses on the health risks, consequences and barriers of trafficked women in order to assess the impact of trafficking on womens physical, mental, reproductive, social and economic well-being. It examines the effect of trafficking on various aspects of womens health and human dignity at each stage of trafficking from pre-departure to integration/re-integration into society. It ends with a human rights analysis of health and trafficking, focusing on the right to health and international treaties that protect this right. The report also recommends a set of principles that promote the health rights of trafficked women. [Descriptors: Migration - Trafficking, International]

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72
Steinitz, Maya, The Role of International Law in the Struggle Against Sex-Based and Gender-Based Violence Against Refugee Women, (2001)

This report examines how international law can be used to protect refugee women's rights in situations of sexual and gender-based violence. The first section of the report provides an introduction to international law and international judicial bodies. The second part of the report discusses the many forms of violence against women and the work of the UN Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women. The report then focuses on the security of refugee women in particular and how international law can protect their rights. While the report is introductory in nature, it also includes an extensive list of other resources that may be useful for more in-depth research. [Descriptors: Migration - Refugees and Immigration, Violence Against Women, International]

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73
D'Cunha, Jean, United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women, Trafficking in Persons: A Gender and Rights Perspective, (2002)

This paper argues for a gender and human rights-based development perspective. It begins with a brief overview of global trends in trafficking and an analysis of current measures to combat this activity. The majority of the paper focuses on a gender and rights-based approach as a framework for analysis and action that would recognize and address gender inequalities, ensure the protection of human rights as well as equip women, men, girls and boys to deal with discrimination and exploitation. Gender and rights issues throughout the trafficking process are also identified. The last section examines anti-trafficking strategies with a particular focus on prevention. [Descriptors: Migration - Trafficking, International]

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